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R U L E S 






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It is necessary to observe that the dates in this edition denote 
the years in which those portions were issued or altered by the 
Yearly Meeting ; where no dates are afhxcd, the parag/aph stands 
as in the edition of 1SQ6. 


As it hath pleased the Lord in these latter days, by 
his spirit and power, to gather a people to himself; 
and, releasing them from the impositions and teach- 
ings of men, to inspire them with degrees of the same 
universal love and good-will by which the dispensa- 
tion of the gospel was ushered in, — these have been 
engaged to meet together for the worship of God in 
Spirit, according to the direction of the holy Law- 
giver; as also for the exercise of a tender care over 
each other, that all may be preserved in unity of faith 
an<i practice, answerable to the description which He 
the ever-blessed Shepherd gave of his flock, " By this 
shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye 
have love one to another." John xiii. 35. 

For this important end, and as an exterior hedge 
of preservation to us, against the many temptations 
and dangers, to which our situation in this world ex- 



poses us, the following rules have been occasionally 
adopted by the Society, and now form our code of dis- 
cipline. In the exercise whereof it is to be observed, 
that if any member be found in a conduct subversive 
of its order, or repugnant to the testimonies which we 
believe we are intrusted with for the promotion of 
Truth in the earth, it becomes our indispensable duty 
to treat with such, in meekness and brotherly com- 
passion, without unnecessary delay or improper expo- 
sure ; according to the direction of our Lord to his 
church, " If thy brother shall trespass against thee, 
go and tell him his fault, between thee and him alone : 
if he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother. 
But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one 
or two more, that in the mouth of two or three wit- 
nesses, every word may be established. And if he 
shall neglect to hear them, tell it to the church ; but 
if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee 
as an heathen-man and a publican." Matt. chap, 
xviii. 15, 16, 17. 

This is the extent of the Society's censure against 
irreclaimable offenders, they are disowned as mem- 
bers of our religious community ; which is recom- 
mended to be done in such a disposition of mind, as 
may convince them, that we sincerely desire their 
recovery and restoration, " considering ourselves, lest 
we also be tempted." Gal. vi. 1. 


For the more regular and effectual support of this 
order of the Society, beside the usual meetings for the 
purpose of Divine worship, others .are instituted sub- 
ordinate to each other; such as, First. Preparative 
meetings ; which commonly consist of the members 
of a meeting for worship. Second. Monthly meetings; 
each of which commonly consists of several prepa- 
rative meetings. Third. Quarterly meetings ; each 
of which consists of several of the monthly meetings. 
And Fourth. The Yearly Meeting, which comprises 
the whole. 

These meetings have all distinct allotments of ser- 
vice. And as experience shows that when this ser- 
vice is attended to in uprightness, and dedication of 
heart, with a single eye to the honour of our Holy 
Head, and the help and edification one of another, in 
the love wherewith he has loved us, our assemblies 
are often favoured with his aid and direction, — 
Friends are affectionately desired and exhorted to be 
diligent in the attendance of them ; and when met, 
humbly seek to be clothed with the spirit of wisdom 
and charity. This will divest the mind of a depend- 
ence on our own strength and abilities, endue us with 
patience and condescension towards each other; and, 
being preserved in fellowship, agreeably to our Lord's 
declaration, " One is your master, even Christ, and all 
ye are brethren," a qualification will be experienced in 


our several atations and movements, to build up one 
another in that faith which works by love to the 
purifying of the heart. 

So may we be living members of the Church mili- 
tant on earth ; and inhabitants of that city which 
hath foundations, whose maker and builder the Lord 
is ; knowing indeed with exceeding joy, that great is 
He the Holy One of Israel in the midst of her. 


Note. — The words Preparative, Monthly, Quarterly and Yearly 
Meetings, as used in these Rules, refer to both men's and women's 


If any are dissatisfied with, or think them- Notice tc 

• c monthly 

selves aggrieved by the judgment of a monthly meeting. 
meeting, they may, after a copy of the testi- 
mony is delivered to them, notify the first or 
second meeting (but no other) of their inten- 
tion of appealing to the ensuing Quarterly 
meeting : which notification the monthly meet- Monthly 

. , . meeting 

ing should enter on the minutes, and appoint action. 
a Committee of four or more suitable Friends 
to attend the Quarterly meeting with that, 
and copies of the minutes of the monthly meet- 
ing, relative to the case, signed by the clerks; 
there to show the reasons whereon that judg- 
ment was founded, and submitting it to the 
said meeting. The Quarterly meeting is then Quarterly 

° . meeting 

to refer the same to a suitable committee of action. 
Friends (omitting those of the monthly meet- 
ing from which the appeal comes) and to con- 
firm or reverse the said judgment, as, on im- 
partial deliberation, shall appear to be right, 
taking care to inform the parties of the result. 



Yearly jf sucn appellant is dissatisfied with the 

Meeting m L *■ 

action. judgment of a Quarterly meeting also; and, on 
being informed thereof, shall notify that or the 
next (but not afterwards) of his or her inten- 
tion to apply to the Yearly Meeting for a fur- 
ther hearing, the said Quarterly meeting, after 
recording such notification, is in like manner 
to appoint at least four suitable Friends, to at- 
tend the Yearly Meeting with copies of the 
records of both the monthly and Quarterly 
meetings in the case, signed by their clerks. 
Here it is to be finally determined, and a copy 
of the determination is to be sent to the meet- 
ing from which the appeal came. (1877.) 


If occasions of differences arise between any 
of our members about their property, it is 
recommended that the parties proceed in the 
following manner: 

Mode pre- Let the party who thinks him or herself ag- 

Bettiement grieved, calmly and kindly request the other 

ences ffer *o com ply with the demand; and, if this be 

disputed, the complainant, or if he or she lives 

at too great a distance, some Friend whom 


they may authorize, should take with him or 
her one or two of the overseers, or other dis- 
creet Friends, and in their presence repeat 
the demand. 

If this step also fails of the desired effect, Reference 

•li-ii i-i i to art> i tra " 

the parties should be advised to choose a suit- tion advis 
able number of Friends as arbitrators, and e< 
mutually engage by bond, or other written 
instrument adapted to the occasion, to abide 
by their determination. 

Should this proposal be acceded to, and Duty of ar- 


arbitrators accordingly chosen, they ought, as 
speedily as circumstances will admit, to appoint 
time and place, and attend to the business 
without unnecessary delay; giving the parties 
a fair and full hearing in the presence of each 
other, but listening to neither of them apart, 
nor suffering their own sentiments to be known 
abroad till they have fully digested the subject, 
and come to a clear decision ; which they should 
be careful to do within the time agreed on. 

But, if either of the said parties shall refuse Either 
to submit the matter in dispute to arbitrators, complying 
or, when that is done, neglect to give his or her p^eTof 
attendance when desired, without a sufficient t0 th f, 


reason being assigned, or not abide by their meeting. 
award when issued; in either of those cases, 
the offender should be complained o r to the 


monthly meeting of which he or she is a mem- 
Anerrone- ber ; and, if they cannot be brought to a sense 

ous or un- , , . n 

just award ol their error, the said meeting should declare 
rehearing. ^ s disunion with them; unless such person 
make it evident to the satisfaction of the said 
meeting, that the award is erroneous or unjust. 
In which case, the matter in dispute may be 
referred either to the same, or other arbitrators, 
as the meeting shall judge best; and their 
Parties award shall be final. After which, if either 
escing To of the parties at variance, prove so regardless 
be disown- Q f Deace anc [ un ity as not to acquiesce in such 
corrected determination, the monthly meeting 
they belong to should proceed to issue a testi- 
mony against him or her so refusing. 

Arbitra- Where arbitrators are at a loss for want of 

tors may 

consult legal knowledge, it may be proper for them, at 

the joint expense of the parties, to take the 

opinion of counsel learned in the law, in order 

to come at a proper judgment in the matter 

Should be referred to them. And that they may the bet- 
unbiassed. . 

ter answer the end of their appointment, and 
be helpful in conciliating the minds of the 
parties, they ought not to consider themselves 
as advocates for those by whom they are 
chosen, but as Friends whose duty it is to judge 
righteously, fearing the Lord. They should, 
as much as may be, shun all previous informa- 
tion respecting the case; or, having heard any 
thing on it, stand unbiassed thereby. They 



should reject no evidence or witness proposed, Reject no 
nor receive any but in the presence of both 
parties; and in their award, they need not 
assign any reason tor their determinations. 

And whereas there may be some circum- Cases ex- 
stances even in disputed matters, wherein the cep 
foregoing wholesome method of proceeding 
cannot be complied with; such as, 1st. The 
party absconding, or leaving the country with 
design to defraud his or her creditors; or, 2d. 
That the going through the meetings, by the 
time it must necessarily take up, might be a 
manifest damage to the creditor or claimant, 
by other people's postponing him or her ; as in 
cases of apparent danger of bankruptcy, or the 
party being overloaded with debts, and other 
creditors generally coming on; or, 3d. That 
there may be danger of future damage to such 
as submit thereto, as in the case of executors, 
administrators, or trustees. It may therefore 
be necessary, and it is advised, that the 
monthly meeting, where such cases happen, 
do hold excused such as shall in the two first 
mentioned circumstances in this paragraph, 
appear to them to be really necessitated to pro- 
eeed at law: and in the latter case of execu- permis- 
tors, administrators, or trustees, where it shall JaJeadia. 
appear to the meeting that our friendly way P" 1 ^ ca9e 
may be unsafe, such may be permitted to have law. 
the matter tried at law, \vi h this caution, that 


the parties on both sides do beliave towards 
each other in love, decency and modera- 
tion, without anger or animosity ; which will 
be a becoming testimony even in courts, and 
show that nothing but the nature of the case, 
and our station in common with others, under 
the laws of the land, bring any of us there. 

Overseers As it may sometimes occur that a member, 

to consider , 

carefully either for want of a clear understanding of the 

the nature 1 , i i • n 

of com- business, or through an improper influence, 
piamt. ma y p resen t a complaint against another mem- 
ber, wherein the overseers, after fully hearing 
both parties, being decidedly of opinion that 
the case does not require a reference, they are 
L'repara- to advise a speedy settlement thereof; which 
ingmaybe being ineffectual, and the complainant remain- 
aml'coni- "*© dissatisfied therewith, may have liberty to 
mittee ap- inform the preparative meeting where the other 

pointed. l L , ° < 

party is a member (without mentioning any 
name) that having a matter in dispute with 
one of their members, he or she is desirous of 
their assistance in order to a settlement there- 
of: — the said meeting is then to appoint a 
judicious committee to inquire into the pro- 
priety of the matter being left to arbitration; 
if they should judge that the complaint ought 
to be referred, they are to advise that it be 
submitted accordingly; but if the said com- 
mittee concur in judgment with the overseers, 
the complaint is to be dismissed. 


It is desired that persons differing about Ministers 

w ' i • i as ai *bitra- 

worldly anairs, do as little as may be, engage tors advis- 
Friends in the ministry as arbitrators in such e a s amst 


As some who attend burials may have to Modera- 
come a considerable distance, and need bodily vised, 
refreshment, it is earnestly advised, that in 
making preparations on such occasions, mode- 
ration may be observed; and that Friends in 
all respects demean themselves with gravity. 
And when the contrary appears, care should 
be taken, and suitable admonition extended; 
that every thing tending to lessen the solemnity 
on such occasions, may be avoided. (1841.) 

It is recommended, that one or more suitr Appoint- 

. . _ . , . . . menttoset 

able friends ot each particular meeting, be that good 
appointed by monthly meetings to attend at observed 
funerals, to see that good order is observed; £ai s fune 
and that the corpse be removed about an hour 
after the time set for meeting at the house. 

Advised, that Friends be careful themselves, Christian 
and encourage their families in the mainte- nies"to~b« 


maintain- nance of our Christian testimonies, when at- 

ed. . . 

tending the burials of those not in communion 
with us. (1841.) 

Meetings l n order that meetings may not be held at 
tais. interments in a customary or formal way, it is 

advised that the proposal for holding any such 
meeting, be previously submitted to the con- 
sideration of the elders and overseers, or other 
solid Friends, either of the meeting in the 
compass of which the deceased resided, or of 
that in which the interment is to take place, — 
that the counsel or mind of Truth may be 
waited for and followed. (1841.) 

Appoint- And to prevent the introduction of improper 

raent to * . . x * 

the care interments amongst us, it is recommended, that 
grounds* ^ wo or more Friends be appointed to the care 
of our several burial grounds by preparative 
or monthly meetings, as the case may require; 
and that no person who is not in membership 
be buried therein, without a permit in writing 
signed by one or two of those Friends; who 
should also take care that our burial grounds 
be properly enclosed, and kept in decent order. 

a pause at It is further recommended, that at all inter 
" ments time be allowed for a solemn pause, both 



before and after the eorpse is put into the 

It is affectionately advised that Friends keep 
to true moderation in all things appertaining 
to interments, and that no costly or showy 
monuments be affixed to graves in any of our 
burial grounds; or any mark be permitted ex- Marks ai 
ceeding six inches in height above the level 
of the ground, or more than sixteen inches in 
width and four inches in thickness, with the 
name and age of the deceased. 

Monthly meetings are directed to give the Directions 
subject particular care and attention, in order meetings.' 5 ' 
that no stone or device should be permitted, 
or any departure from the rule, allowed of or 
submitted to, in our burial grounds; and such 
as are placed already in our burial grounds are 
directed to be reduced, as early as is con- 
veniently practicable, to the height mentioned. 

Friends are advised against imitating the Mourning 

i. n • • • habits, &c. 

vain custom ot wearing or giving mourning 
habits, and all extravagant expenses about 
the interment of the dead. 

As great inconvenience may arise from the Record of 
want of due attention to keeping a regular deaths .*" 
record of births and deaths, it is earnestly 



enjoined on each monthly meeting, that they 
appoint a careful Friend, whose duty it shall 
be, in a book provided for the purpose at the 
monthly meeting's expense, to keep a record 
of all births and deaths of members that shall 
occur within their respective limits, and 
which shall be offered for that purpose. And 
in order to engage the attention of monthly 
meetings more closely to this subject, it is 
further enjoined, that an explicit answer be 
annually given by monthly to Quarterly meet> 
ings, and through them to the Yearly Meeting, 
to the query, Whether due care is taken to 
keep a regular record of births and deaths? 

The form of the record to be as follows — 


Names of the 


Names of the 


notes, i 


; Names of the 








It is recommended to the meeting for suffer- PubUca 
ings to advise or assist any of our members, 
on their own application, who may .incline to 
publish any manuscript or work which may 
tend to promote the cause of Truth or be 
beneficial to society. (1829.) And it is the Writings 
sense of this Meeting, that if any one shall disunity, 
print or publish any writing which tends to 
excite disunity and discord among us, such 
persons should be complained of to the 
monthly meeting they belong to ; and if they 
cannot be convinced of the impropriety of 
their conduct, be testified against, as opposed 
to the peace and good order of the Society. 

This Meeting doth earnestly exhort all pa- Advice 
rents, heads of families, and guardians of mi- Sing 
nors, that they prevent, as much as in them {J^« cioU8 
lies, their children and others under their care 
and tuition, from having or reading books and 
papers tending to prejudice the profession of 
the Christian religion, to create the least doubt 
concerning the authenticity of the holy Scrip- 
tures, or of those saving truths declared in 
them ; lest their infant and feeble minds should 
be poisoned thereby, and a foundation laid for 
2* B 17 



the greatest evils. And it is earnestly recom- 
mended to every member of our religious 
society, that they discourage and suppress the 
reading of plays, romances, novels, or other 
Against pernicious books; and printers and booksellers 
8eiHng, g or m profession with us, are cautioned against 
luch ing printing, selling, or lending such books; as it 
books. i s a practice so inconsistent with the purity of 
the Christian religion. And Friends are de- 
sired to be careful in the choice of all books in 
which their children and families read ; seeing 
there are many under the specious titles of 
promoting religion and morality, which con- 
tain sentiments repugnant to the truth in 
Christ Jesus. 


For tra- It is recommended to the Quarterly and 
Friends to monthly meetings, to take care that all certifi- 
abi 8ea re - n cates or minutes which may be given to any 
turned, travelling Friend, be recorded; and upon the 
of removal return of such Friend, seasonably delivered 
£ b hi l0 thc back to the meeting; and that all certificates 
mS 7 °f removal brought by any Friend intending 
and re- to reside amongst us, shall be lodged in the 




monthly meeting where the same is accept- 
ed ; and also that every meeting do keep a 
copy or record of all certificates which they 
give out. 

All certificates of removal prepared and ap- 
proved by one meeting must be sent to the oth- 
er, and if there approved signed by the clerks 
of both. All certificates received must be read 
and minuted in both men's and women's meet- 
ings. (1877.) 

Friends are advised to be very cautious in Advice 
changing their places of residence : it having ^^0^° 
been observed that the dissolving of old, and change of 


the forming of new connections, have in many 
instances been attended with effects prejudi- 
cial to a growth in the Truth and the service 
thereof, both in the heads and younger branches 
of families. We therefore recommend to all, 
that on these occasions a strict attention be 
paid to the pointings of Divine wisdom ; and 
that, before any determine to change their 
places of abode, they consult with their expe- 
rienced fellow-members. 

When a monthly meeting is engaged to pre- inquiry 
pare a certificate on account of the removal of j^i? 
any Friend to reside within the limits of an- certificates, 
other monthly meeting, careful inquiry should 
be made by a committee appointed for that 
purpose, respecting the situation of his or her 
temporal affairs, and also, if single, concerning 



their situation in relation to marriage engage- 
ments ; and if on such inquiry no impediment 
should be found, the certificate should state, 
that, on inquiry no obstruction appeared rela- 
tive to his or her outward affairs to the grant- 
ing a certificate. (1818.) 

To be con- It is the judgment of this Meeting, that when 
accepted a certificate of removal from one monthly meet- 
duced pr ° m £ addressed to another is produced therein, 
and it is found that the person or persons re- 
commended reside within the limits thereof, it 
should be considered as accepted, and the par- 
Pecuniary ties members of that meeting. But if any such 
persons shall fall into circumstances requiring 
pecuniary relief within one year after the re- 
ceipt of such certificate, the meeting removed 
to, ought to assist them, giving speedy notice 
thereof to the other; whereupon that meeting 
should immediately take care of them, and 
repay the charge which has been or may be in- 
curred on that account. But if any Friend be 
reduced in his or her circumstances by fire or 
other sudden unavoidable losses, though it may 
be within one year after their removal as afore- 
said, they should be kindly assisted and re- 
lieved by the meeting where such persons 

Appiica- AH Friends removing out of the limits of 

made for their monthly meetings, whether for continu- 
cate S fi ance, or for any considerable length of time, 


are advised to apply to their respective meet- 
ings for certificates direeted to those within 
which they propose to sojourn or settle. But To be sent 
if any shall remove without so applying, the Applied for. 
monthly meetings of which they are members, 
after the usual inquiry made, and no obstruc- 
tion appearing, should send certificates for them 
to the monthly meetings within which they 
are removed, and that without improper delay, incunveni- 
But if their conduct requires their being dealt ^tomS? 11 
with, and the distance such as to be inconve- as have re- 

, '11 -ip moved at a 

nient tor the meeting they have removed from, distance, 
the monthly meeting within which they are, 
should be requested to treat with him or her 
thereon, and report the effect of its care. On 
which, if it proves satisfactory, a certificate of 
recommendation or removal may be ordered ; 
but if otherwise, and a testimony of disunion 
is issued, the meeting within which he or she 
resides, should be furnished with a copy thereof, 
to be delivered to the party, with information 
of their right of appeal. 

It is to be understood that where appren- Appren- 

1 1 . tices and 

tices, or persons under age, are under a necessity minors, 
of going from one place to another, their pa- 
rents or guardians, masters or mistresses, 
should apply for certificates for them, recom- 
mending them to the care and oversight of the 
monthly meetings whereto they remove. 

If any person appearing as a Friend, come as P Frienda 


wit ?fi Ut w ^hin the compass of a monthly meeting, not 
andofdis- being recommended by certificate, and be of 
conduct, to disorderly conduct, the overseers or other con- 
be treated ce rned Friends should inquire whether or not 

with. x 

he or she is a member of our society ; and, if 
they prove so to be, admonish them ; or, if 
the occasion require it, report the case to the 
preparative, and from thence to the monthly 
meeting; which should thereupon inform the 
monthly meeting of which he or she is a mem- 
ber, of the circumstance, and take the direction 
of said meeting for dealing further with them, 
according to our rules in cases of that nature. 

Visits to It is recommended that monthly meetings, 

brin g W c tr- as way may open, appoint two or more Friends 
tificates. to visit such who come recommended by certi- 
ficate to settle amongst them. 

Certificates Monthly meetings are advised to take due 
ty e ofmo Cr " care that certificates of removal be seasonably 
meetings, f orwa rded by suitable conveyances to the 

and to be J . . J 

seasonably monthly meetings to which they are directed 
forwa/ded. — ^^ k^g tne exc i us i ve property of such 


Corrcs- Each Quarterly and Monthly Meeting 

pondents. g } 10U u appoint a correspondent, to whom cer- 
tificates or other communications intended for 
the meeting should be addressed, and whose 
duty it should be to acknowledge promptly, 
by letter or otherwise, the reception of such 


communications, and also to^forward from 
their respective meetings such papers as may 
be placed in their charge for that purpose. 
The name and post-office address of each cor- 
respondent to be forwarded annually to the 
Yearly Meeting, and a full list thereof pub- 
lished in the extracts. (1864.) 


It is advised, that where there is any ap- Dissension 
pearance of dissension and variance, or of un- 
kind resentment and shyness among our mem- 
bers, the parties be timely and tenderly 
apprized of the danger to which they thereby 
expose both themselves and others, and ear- 
nestly exhorted to mutual condescension and 
forgiveness, becoming the followers of Christ : 
And if any, notwithstanding such endeavours 
for their help, continue to manifest an impla- 
cable enmity to others, the overseers or other impiaca- 
solid Friends of the preparative or monthly t y. 
meeting they belong to, should be informed 
thereof, and labour further with them : when, 
if they still prove inflexible, they ought to be 
testified against as out of the unity of the 
body — the very end of whose existence is the 
promotion of peace on earth, and good- will 
amongst men. 


Liberty f Liberty of conscience being the common 



science, right of all men, and particularly essential to 
the well-being of religious societies, we hold it 
to be indispensably incumbent upon us to 
maintain it inviolably among ourselves : and 

Caution therefore advise and exhort all in profession 

respecting , L 

offices. with us, to decline the acceptance of any office 
or station in civil government, the duties of 
which are inconsistent with our religious prin- 
ciples; or in the exercise of which they may 
be, or think themselves to be. under the neces- 
sity of exacting of their brethren any com- 
pliances against which we are conscientiously 
scrupulous. And if any persons in member- 
ship with us, notwithstanding this advice, shall 
persist in a conduct so reverse to our principles 
and religious liberty, it is the sense of this 
Meeting that they be treated with, as in other 
cases of offence ; and if they cannot be brought 
to see and acknowledge their error, that the 
monthly meetings to which they belong should 
proceed to testify our disunity with them. 

Not to And it is also the sense and judgment of this 

bcratosta- Meeting, that Friends ought not, in any wise, 
wWchtend to ^ e ac ^ ve or accessory in electing, or promot- 
to lay ing to be elected, their brethren to such offices 
Testimo- or station s in civil government, the execution 
mes * whereof tends to lav waste our Christian testi- 


mony, or Bubject their brethren or others to 
Bufferings on account of their conscientious 

Believing that we are called to show forth to Peaceable 

i • t <• i • i ill i kingdom 

the world in lite and practice, that the blessed f Christ 
reign of the Messiah, the Prince of peace, is 
begun, and we doubt not will proceed till it at- 
tains its completion in the earth, when accord- 
ing to the prophecies of Isaiah and Micah, 
" Nation shall not lift up sword against nation 
neither shall they learn war any more." lu- 
ll uenced by these principles, we cannot con- whose 
sistently join with such as form combinations oannotjoii 
of a hostile nature against any; much less in mhostlle 

J 7 measures. 

opposition to those placed in sovereign or sub- 
ordinate authority; nor can we unite w r ith or 
encourage such as revile and asperse them; for 
it is written, " Thou shalt not speak evil of the 
ruler of thy people." Acts xxiii. 5. 


Whatever exercises we may meet with on Faithful- 
account of a faithful testimony to the Truth in ^ me ^ 
all godliness of conversation ; and to the end ed - 
that we may not faint in our minds, let us con- 


sider the Captain of our salvation, who endured 
the contradiction of sinners, bearing his cross 
and despising the shame, and is now set down 
on the right hand of God, where he continually 
maketh intercession for us — that following him, 
and under his banner fighting the good fight 
of faith, we may finally obtain the crown of 
righteousness which fadeth not away. 

a . . Advised, that such be dealt with who are 

boandal- . 

ous prac- given to lying, swearing, cursing ; men and 

tices con- 1 r 11 i 1 • 

demned or women unlawfully or unseemly keeping corn- 
testified p tl nv with each other, or any other scandalous 

against. l " . J m 

practice ; and where any are guilty of gross or 
notorious crimes, or such other disorderly or 
indecent practices as shall occasion public scan- 
dal, — after being dealt with by the overseers 
or other concerned Friends, if they are brought 
to a sense thereof, such offenders ought with- 
out improper delay to remove the scandal, and 
clear, as much as in them lies, our holy profes- 
sion therefrom, by acknowledging the offence, 
and condemning the same in writing under 
their hand, to the satisfaction of the monthly 
meeting whereto they belong. And where any 
such offender refuseth so to acknowledge and 
condemn the fault, the said monthly meeting 
ought speedily to testify against him or her, and 
the fact. 

Biasphe- If any in membership with us shall bias- 
claim ear- pheme, or speak profanely of Almighty God, 
lycare. Christ Jesus, or the Holy Spirit, he or she 


ought early to be tenderly treated with for 
their instruction, and the eonvincement of 
their understanding, that they may experience 
repentance and forgiveness ; but should any, 5w^* m8 
notwithstanding this labour, persist in their or denying 
error, or deny the divinity of our Lord and *• o d f lvin " 
Saviour Jesus Christ, the immediate reve- cinist, 
lation of the Holy Spirit, or the authenticity SJ^L^ 1 
of the Scriptures; as it is manifest they are not '»«•*■ 
one in faith with us, the monthly meeting 
where the party belongs, having extended due 
care for the help and benefit of the individual 
without effect, ought to declare the same, and 
issue their testimony accordingly. 

It is the earnest concern of this Meeting, Strict ju* 
that in all our dealings and transactions among our deal- 
men, strict justice may be observed: and that "■■ t0 , be 

7 , J . J . observed. 

no motives of pecuniary interest may induce 
any of our members to impose on each other, 
or on their neighbours: and it is desired that 
monthly meetings may be careful to extend 
suitable admonition against a spirit of covetous- 
ness, and against every appearance of deviation 
from strict justice in any of our members. 

Frequent waiting in stillness on the Lord for Waiting in 
the renewal of strength, keeps the mind at recom- 3 
home in its proper place and duty, and out of menaed - 
all unprofitable association and converse, whe- 
ther amongst those of our own, or other pro- 
fessions. Much hurt may accrue to the reli- 


Unneces- gious mind by long and frequent conversation 
versatbn on temporal matters, especially by interesting 
on tempo- ourselves unnecessarily in them ; for there is a 

ral mat- J 7 

ters dis- leaven m that propensity, which being suffered 

courage . to p reva j^ indisposes and benumbs the soul, 

and prevents its frequent ascendings in living 

aspirations towards the Fountain of eternal 



It is concluded that the following order be 
observed respecting persons who apply for ad- 
mittance into membership, and request to come 
Admission under the care of Friends. That they apply 
herahip 1° the overseers or elders, who, when they are 
easy so to do, are to lay it before men's or wo- 
men's preparative meeting, as the case may be; 
and, after that meeting is fully satisfied, by 
paying a solid visit or otherwise, they are to 
lay the case before the monthly meeting of the 
same branch ; which meeting shall appoint 
some suitable Friends to inquire into the per- 
son's life and conversation, and also to take a 
solid opportunity of conference with the party, 
in order the better to understand whether his 
or her motives for such request be sincere, and 
on the ground of true convincement ; and make 


report of their sense of the person's suitable- 
ness to become a member: on which, when 
both meetings are satisfied, a minute should 
be made, signifying the acceptance of such into 
membership, and appointing a Friend or two 
to acquaint the person thereof, requesting his or 
her attendance at the next monthly meeting. 

But in all such cases, Friends are exhorted Caution 


to attend carefully to the advice of the apostle, haste. 
" Lay hands suddenly on no man." The neg- 
lect of such caution having often been inju- 
rious both to the individuals and to the Society 
— to them, by settling them in a false rest; and 
to the Society, by adding to its numbers, with- 
out increasing its joy. 

Wherefore, we desire, that on every applica- 
tion of persons to be received into membership 
with us, monthly meetings may be deep and 
weighty in their deliberations and result; and, without 
when united in believing that the applicants Sn or 
are clearly convinced of our religious principles. colour - 
and in a good degree subject to the Divine wit- 
ness in their own hearts, manifested by a cir- 
cumspect life and conduct, said meetings are 
at liberty to receive such into membership, 
without respect to nation or colour. And such Disowned 
as may have been disowned, and incline to be- received 
come members, may be received on their own ^ 8 ^ h f rs 
request as other applicants. 


Same reasons for not observing fasts and feast 
days arid times, and other human injunctions 
and institutions relative to the worship of God. 

Ever since we were a people, we have had a 
testimony against formal worship; being con- 
vinced by the precepts of our Lord Jesus Christ. 
the testimonies of his apostles, and our own 
experience, that the worship and prayers which 
God accepts, are such only as are produced by 
the influence and assistance of his Holy Spirit; 
we cannot therefore consistently unite with any 
in the observation of public fasts, feasts, and 
what they term holy days; or such injunctions 
and forms as are devised in man's will for Di- 
vine worship. The dispensation to which out- 
ward observations were peculiar, having long 
since given place to the spiritual dispensation 
of the gospel, we believe the fast we are now 
called to is not the bowing of the head like a 
bulrush for a day, but an universal and con- 
tinual fasting and refraining from every thing 
which has a tendency to defile the soul, and 
unfit it for becoming the temple of the Holy 
Ghost; according to the injunctions of Christ 
to his primitive disciples, " If any man will 
come after me, let him take up his daily cross 


and follow me. Watch ye therefore and pray 
always, that ye may be accounted worthy to 
escape all these things that shall come to pass, 
and to stand before the Son of Man." That 
the primitive believers saw an end to these 
shadows of good things, by coming to Him in 
whom all figures and shadows end, is evident 
by the words of the apostle Paul : " For Christ," 
said he, " is the end of the law for righteous- 
ness to every one that believeth." Rom. x. 4. 
" But now hath he obtained a more excellent 
ministry, by how much also he is the mediator 
of a better covenant, which was established 
upon better promises." Heb. viii. 6. " Let no 
man therefore judge you in meat or drink, or 
in respect of an holy day, or of the new moon, 
or of the sabbath days, which are a shadow of 
things to come, but the body is of Christ." Col. 
ii. 16, 17. And the same apostle thus expos- 
tulated with some who it appears had fallen 
from the true faith in these respects: "But now 
after that ye have known God, how turn ye 
again to the beggarly elements, whereunto ye 
desire again to be in bondage? Ye observe 
days and months, and times, and years: I am 
afraid of you lest I have bestowed upon you 
labour in vain." Gal. iv. 9, 10, 11. 



strict vigi- Frif"T)S are everywhere exhorted to main* 
against tain a strict watch over themselves and each 
oSni t Piri - °t ner > ngainst the subtle and mischievous spirit 
tion re- of tale-bearing and detraction — the manifest 
ed. r tendency of which is to lay waste the unity of 
the body, by sowing the seeds of disesteem, 
strife, and discord among brethren and neigh- 
bours ; as well as to unfit those who either pro- 
pagate or listen to evil reports, for being of that 
service to the persons reflected upon, which 
they might be if the order prescribed by our 
blessed Lord to his church, was strictly ob- 
Gospei served, viz : " If thy brother shall trespass 
against thee, go and tell him his fault between 
thee and him alone: if he shall hear thee, thou 
hast gained thy brother. But if he will not 
hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, 
that, in the mouth of tw r o or three witnesses, 
every word may be established. And if he 
shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the 
church; but if he neglect to hear the church, 
let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a 

Detractors It is therefore advised, that in whomsoever 

to be testi- . i • i •, i i* x * 

fieJ this weakness appears, it may be immediately 

against if cnec ked ; and, if any one gives way to it, to 



the jbvious injury of another's reputation the labor 
or interest, let him or her be faithfully ad- tU ai. 
monished; and, if they persist, and cannot be 
prevailed with to give due satisfaction, the 
preparative or monthly meeting should be 
informed of it, and deal further with them; 
when, if this produce not the desired effect, 
they should be testified against. 

And if any member who offends in this Hearsay 
respect, shelters him or herself under a pre- re P ortera 
tence that they say no more than they have 
heard from others, but will not discover who 
they are, — such reporters or tale-bearers should 
in like manner be dealt with, and testified 
against as being themselves the authors. 


The institution of our meetings for disci- 
pline of both men and women Friends having 
on experience been found very beneficial, it is 
earnestly recommended they may be maintained 
in that authority wherein they were established. 
Where any have been negligent in attending 
them, or opposed to their usefulness, carnality 
and spiritual death have been the consequence. 




Connec- The connection and subordination of our 

suhordi- meetings for discipline are thus: Preparative 
mel°thigl me etings are accountable to the monthly; 
monthly, to the Quarterly; and the Quarterly, 
to the Yearly Meeting. So that if the Yearly 
Meeting be at any time dissatisfied with the 
proceedings of any inferior meeting; or a 
Quarterly meeting with the proceedings of 
either of its monthly meetings; or a monthly 
meeting with the proceedings of either of its 
preparative meetings — such meeting or meet- 
ings ought with readiness and meekness to 
render an account thereof when required. 

To make When it may be thought expedient to make 

or* 1 1 1 pt* 

disci- or alter any rule of discipline, the subject shall 
pime, £ r ^ c l a i m the attention of a Mont lily Meeting 

men and _ J » 

women to of men or women Friends, and in case the 
proposition should be united with in both 
branches, it is to be forwarded to the Quarterly 
Meeting, and when there united with in like 
manner, be forwarded to the Yearly Meeting 
of men and women Friends for consideration 
and approval. (1861.) 

Setting up It is agreed, that no Quarterly meeting be 
down ayiDg set up or laid down, without the consent of 
meetings. j. ne Yearly Meeting; no monthly meeting 
without the consent of the Quarterly meeting; 
nor any preparative or other meeting for busi- 
ness or worship, till application to the monthly 
meeting is first made; and, when there ap- 
proved, the consent of the Quarterly meeting 


be also obtained. Also, that no meeting for 
worship intended to consist of Friends belong- 
ing to two or more monthly meetings shall be 
set up, until the proposal be offered to and 
approved by both those monthly meetings, 
and the consent of their respective Quarterly 
meeting or meetings be obtained. When the 
meeting proposed, is opened, it should be at- 
tended by a few solid Friends, deputed by each 
of the said monthly meetings. And, if at any 
time it is thought expedient that a preparative 
meeting should be held at the same place, the 
consent of the said monthly and Quarterly 
meetings should be, in like manner, applied 
for and obtained; and the said preparative 
meeting should be annexed to either one or 
the other of those monthly meetings, as may 
be most likely to conduce to the benefit of the 
individuals who compose it, and the advantage 
oi^ Society. 

It is directed, that a book be provided by Books to 
every monthly and Quarterly meeting, and ^ ^'faii 
fair minutes be kept therein, of all matters record f 
which shall come before and be determined by 
them. Monthly meetings, particularly, are 
advised to attend to and finish all such busi- 
ness with care and despatch, that it may, at 
no time, suffer by improper delay. And if any Monthly m 
case under consideration proves too weighty or Quarterly 
difficult for them to determine, they should ™ eeti »s s 

7 J m for assist- 

apply to their respective Quarterly meetings ance. 


for assistance ; or, if the circumstances are 
such as to require it, refer it thereto b} 

Copies of It is the sense of this Meeting, as a genera] 

minutes i • n ,1 i , 

may be rule in all cases, that where any monthly or 
meetingE! Quarterly meeting has occasion for, and re- 
quests copies of any of the papers, minutes, or 
records of another monthly or Quarterly meet- 
ing, the same may accordingly be granted. 

And also Where any difference happens among 

ifQ^rter- Friends, and the same be entered in any 

monthi ' monthly or Quarterly meeting book, it is 

meetings agreed, that if the parties, or either of them, 

thereof, think that copies of such entries may be useful 

and necessary for them, and request the same, 

such monthly and Quarterly meetings shall 

have a discretional power to give or refuse 

such copies, according to the circumstances 

and motives attending. 

Reprcsen- It is agreed, that a suitable number of men 

theQuar- and women be appointed in each monthly 

Vi-'.Vi and mee tiug, to attend the service of the Quarterly 

"•wrings, meeting, with such reports in writing, signed 

by their clerks, as may be given them in 

charge: also, that at least four of each sex be 

appointed in each Quarterly meeting to attend 

the Yearly Meeting. 

punctual And it is earnestly advised and desired, that 
ancTor il ^ Friends who submit to these, or any other 


services of Society, may be punctual in their reason for 
attendance thereon ; or, if prevented by sick- advised. 
ness or any other unavoidable occurrence, that 
they be careful to send information thereof; 
also, that those who are under appointments 
to meetings, do not withdraw therefrom before 
the conclusion, without obtaining the meetr 
ing'a consent. 

And when proposals of marriage are made, 
if any near relations of the parties (who are 
not in membership) are permitted to be pre- 
sent, they should withdraw before the meeting 
proceeds to any other business. 

It is advised, that if a member under dealing' Mode/of 
removes into the compass of another monthly wfth Those 
meeting; or, if previous to or after such re- whore s ule 
moval, the conduct of him or her has been tance. 
such as to require their being dealt with — 
and their residence be at so great a distance as 
to render it inconvenient for the monthly 
meeting to which they belong, it should re- 
quest that into which they are removed, to 
treat with them according to our rules, and to 
report the effect of its care ; when, if it is satis- 
factory, the party should be recommended by 
certificate; or if otherwise, and a testimony 
of denial is issued, a copy thereof should be 
sent to the monthly meeting within the limits 
of which he or she resides, and that meeting 
is to appoint two or more Friends to inform 
them thereof, and of their right of appeal. 




Minuted After a charge against, a member for dis- 
no^to'sit orderly conduct is entered on the minutes of a 
in any monthly meeting, he or she should not be per- 

meetmg . , . . 

for disci- mitted to sit in any of our meetings for disci- 
pline, till the case is issued, and the monthly 
meeting satisfied. 


in men's 

In dealing with offenders, the men's or wo- 
men's meetings should proceed separately until 
a judgment is arrived at, when, if the labor 
shall have been effectual, a minute ma}' be 
made and the case closed ; but if not. it should 
be presented to the other meeting, that if fur- 
ther labor be thought best it may be jointly 
proceeded in. and the result united with by 
both, which result shall be communicated to 
the individual by the meeting in which the 
case originated. The names of women who 
have been dealt with on account of marriage, 
and retained in membership, are to be reported 
to men's meeting for official record. 


It is advised, that where any transgress the 
rules of our discipline, they may, without 
partiality, be admonished and sought in the 
spirit of love and Divine charity; so that it 
may be seen by all, that the restoring spirit 
of meekness and Christian love abounds, before 
church censure takes place; and that a gospel 
spirit is the spring and motive to all our per- 
formances, as well in discipline as in worship. 


Tt is earnestly recommended, that in con 
ducting the affairs of the church, Friends en- 
deavour to manage them in the peaceable 
spirit and wisdom of Jesus, with decency, for- 
bearance, and love to each other. 

It appearing by the minutes of the meeting suffering 
for sufferings, that on inspection of some of ca6es * 
the accounts of sufferings sent up by the Quar- 
terly meetings, considerable difficulty has been 
occasioned by those accounts not expressing, 
with sufficient clearness, what the sufferings 
mentioned were for; it is now desired that the 
monthly and Quarterly meetings may in future 
leave out of their reports any instances which 
do not appear to be clearly consistent with the 
sense of this Yearly Meeting; and that they Sent up 
continue to collect and send up their accounts a"™/ 
of sufferings annually as heretofore directed; corded 
and that they be preserved and recorded agree- 
ably to the practice of our ancient Friends; 
reciting the sums demanded, — the kind and 
amount of property taken, — by whom the dis- 
traints were made, — and the authority under 
which the officers acted. 

As to the rights of children whose parents Rights of 
have been married contrary to the rules of our denned 
discipline, it is agreed, that where either of 
those parents remain out of membership, their 
children should not be esteemed members, till 
application for their admission is made either 
by themselves or by their parent, parents, or 


guardians, on their behalf, and the monthly 
meeting applied to, on a solid consideration of 
the case, is easy to admit them or any of them. 
The rights of children born of parents who 
have been married according to our rules, or 
of such children whose parents have both 
become members, and one of them afterwards 
disowned, are not intended to be affected by 
this rule, if a parent of either of those descrip- 
tions retains a right of membership at the 
time of the birth of any such child. (1815.) 

Sorcery tc If anv member of our religious society shall 
be testified apply to those called jugglers or fortune-tellers, 
or those who by colour of any art or skill 
whatsoever, pretend to a knowledge of future 
events, hidden transactions, or where things 
lost or stolen may be found ; or if any of our 
members shall use, or pretend to such art or 
skill, it is advised that they be speedily dealt 
with ; and if they do not manifest a due sense of 
their evil conduct, that they be testified against. 

clerks A committee should be annually appointed 

in each of our Quarterly and monthly meet- 
ings, for the nomination of clerks; which may 
afford opportunity for their being seasonably 
changed, and more of our qualified members 
exercised in those services. 

Service of As the use and design of preparative meet- 
tivTmeet- m S s ia m general to digest and prepare busi- 
es 8 ness, as occasion may require, which may be 


proper to be laid before the monthly meeting, 
Friends ought to be careful therein, not to 
occasion unnecessary delays, or undertake to 
decide on any business which claims attention 
and care in monthly meetings. And when 
cases are agreed to be carried forward, they 
should be entered in writing, and some suitable 
Friend or Friends named to produce them to 
the monthly meetings ; and proper notes there- 
of should be carefully preserved by clerks of 
preparative meetings, as to said meetings may 
appear useful and right. But no preparative 
meeting shall take cognizance of proposals of 
marriage, this being exclusively the business 
of monthly meetings. 

Either Men's or Women's Yearly or Quarterly 
Meeting may communicate to their constitu- 
ent meetings such advices as they apprehend 
necessary, with any epistles or writings issued 
for that purpose ; nominate committees to visit 
their constituent meetings, or for any other 
service which they may judge expedient; and 
in all respects they are to attend to those mat- 
ters which may properly come under their 
notice and care. (1877.) 


Executors and trustees concerned in wills 
and settlements, are advised to a faithful and 
punctual discharge of their respective trusts, 
according to the intent of the donors and testa- 
tors; and both they and the meetings con- 
cerned in any charitable gifts, legacies or 
bequests, to take special care that these be not 
perverted or appropriated to any other uses 
than such as the donors or testators have 
directed and enjoined by legal settlement, will, 
or testament. 


As the visiting of Friends in their families 
in the openings of heavenly wisdom, is a ser- 
vice which hath often been blessed to the 
minds of the visitors and visited, this Meeting 
hath from time to time recommended it to the 
solid attention of Quarterly and monthly meet- 
ings: and it is desired, that concerns of this 
nature may be tenderly cherished, and those 
4* 43 


who are rightly exercised therein, encouraged 
to move forward in due season, and in humble 
dependence on the Shepherd of Israel, who 
not only puts his own forth, but goes before 
and rewards all who are faithful to "his appoint- 
ments, with the enriching reward of sweet 
comfor" and solid peace. 


Gaming As our time passeth swiftly away, and our 

diversions delight ought to be in the law of the Lord ; it 
cause of j g a( ] v j se( j that a watchful care be exercised 


ment. over our youth, to prevent their going to stage- 
plays, horse-races, music, dancing, or any such 
vain sports and pastimes ; and being concerned 
in lotteries, wagering, or other species of gam- 
ing. And if any of our members fall into 
either of these practices, and cannot be pre- 
vailed with, by private labour, to decline them, 
the monthly meetings to which the offenders 
belong, should be informed thereof; and, if they 
be not reclaimed by further labour, proceed to 
testify our disunity with them. 


If any member is complained of for with- 
holding a just debt, he or she should be ten- withhoid- 
derly urged to payment ; and if this is un avail- Sb t a < J^ 
ing, be dealt with as in other cases of dis- ot * (leal - 
orderly conduct. And if any of our members 
appear unable to satisfy their creditors, they 
should be advised to call them together with- insolvents 
out loss of time; and submit the state of their at ivi ce f 
affairs to their inspection : when, if the ere- credifcorB - 
ditors apprehend a surrender of the debtor's 
effects to assignees for the benefit of the whole 
to be necessary, let him or her be earnestly en- 
treated to consent ; and, if they refuse so to do, 
the monthly meeting should be informed 
thereof; when, if the party still persists in Refusing 
refusing, he or she should be disowned with- j^,^ 
out too long delay. meut - 

But if Friends in such difficult circumstances Compas 
manifest 'an honest intention, and shall offer f, 1 ^,^ 
their all to their creditors, let compassion and debtors 
aid be extended to them as brethren, and ob- 
jects of Christian charity — having done what 
they can, no more for the present is justly to 
be expected from them. Yet it is the judg- Payment 
inent of this meeting, that if persons so failing when of" ' 
in their circumstances, should at any time abilit y- 


4 6 LAW. 

afterwards be favoured with full ability to pay 
off their deficiencies, justice will require it of 
them, notwithstanding a composition with, and 
legal discharge from their creditors may have 
been obtained. This is however not meant to 
furnish any with a pretext for advancing such 
claims, while persons so deficient are honestly 
labouring to retrieve their circumstances, nor 
until it shall clearly appear to their respective 
monthly meetings, or to a solid committee 
thereof, that a sufficient ability is arrived at; 
when, if they are requested to comply, and per- 
sist in refusing, the said meetings should pro- 
ceed to disown them. 

No undue And it is desired, that no debtors may shel- 
tagTto be ter themselves under such of our rules, as are 
taken of designed to guard us against an unkind treat- 

our rules. «• i • i_ 

ment of each other, unjustly hoping to be 
thereby put out of the reach of the civil au- 

Suits at And it is the sense of this Meeting, that if 



any member thereof, disregarding the gospel 
order prescribed by our discipline, shall arrest 
or sue at law another member (not being un- 
der such a necessity so to do, as may satisfy 
the overseers or other solid and judicious 
Friends of the meeting to which the latter be- 
longs) he or she in so doing, doth depart from 
the peaceable principle we make profession of; 
and if, on being treated with by the monthly 



meeting to which they belong, they cannot be 
prevailed with to withdraw the suit and pay 
the costs thereof, they should be disowned. 

MARRIAGES. (1842.) 

The Society of Friends have ever regarded 
the marriage contract as one of a religious na- 
ture. It is therefore earnestly and affection- 
ately advised, that our members, previously to 
making any procedure in this important con- 
cern, do seriously and humbly wait upon the Divine 
Lord for his counsel and direction ; and when be waited 
favoured with satisfactory clearness therein, for ' a ? d 

J ' parents 

they should acquaint their parents or guar- informed, 
dians with their intentions. Thus, preservation 
from the dangerous bias of forward and uncer- 
tain affections, would be experienced, to the 
real benefit of the parties, and the comfort of 
their friends. 

The principles on which the good order in 
our religious Society, in relation to the accom- 
plishment of marriage, is founded, are, 

Firstly. For the preservation of harmony, Consent of 
peace, and unity in families: and, to guard parents * 
against hasty and improper connections, the 



consent of parents should be early obtained 
by the parties. 

Care of Secondly. That Friends may proceed cora- 

inniithly in- i • • i 

meetings, inendably in this important connection, the 
proposal of marriage should be laid before the 
monthly meeting, in order that Friends may 
extend a watchful care over their members, 
and see that they are clear of other similar 

Mixed Thirdly. To discountenance mixed mar- 
riages; or the marriages of our members with 
those of other principles and professions of 
religion: because unhappiness is often the 
result of such connections, and difficulties and 
embarrassments are liable to ensue in the 
education of children. 

Hireling Fourthly. To maintain our testimony against 

ministry i • i- • • -i- . 

an hireling ministry, by avoiding the assist- 
ance of a priest or hireling minister, in accom- 
plishing this solemn engagement. 

For the purpose of maintaining these princi- 
ples and testimonies, it is agreed that the 
following order be observed in the accomplish- 
ment of marriages. 

Proposals. The parties making proposals of marriage 
are to communicate their intentions to the 
men's and women's monthly meeting in writ 


ing, signed by them both, in the following 
manner : 

"To the Monthly Meeting of Form. 

With Divine permission and Friends' approba- 
tion, we intend marriage with each other." 

Whereupon, if they belong to the same Committee 
meeting, a committee of men and women ° mquiljr 
Friends should be appointed to make inquiry 
respecting the clearness of the parties from 
other similar engagements. If they have 
parents or guardians, their consent should be Consent of 
expressed in the meeting, or produced in writ- i )areuts 
ing, when it is practicable, or may reasonably 
be obtained. Should the woman be a widow Rights of 
having children, the committee are to see that Children 
the rights of the children are legally secured. le s all y 8e 

I . . cured. 

At the next meeting, if the committee report 
that inquiry has been made, and no obstruc- 
tion to the further proceeding appears, the 
monthly meeting may leave the parties at 
liberty to accomplish their marriage, accord- 
ing to our order, at a public meeting, or at 
such other time and place as it may approve; Time and 
except on the first day of the week ; and p a ' 
appoint two Friends of each sex to have the Overseers 
care and oversight thereof. If any member is apl ° L 
about to marry without the limits of the 
monthly meeting of which he or she is a mem- 
ber, care should be taken to procure a certifi- certificate 

e i i • i ii „ lf . of clear- 

cate lrom the meeting they belong to, of their ^ess. 



right of membership, and clearness from any 
other person with respect to marriage; and 
produce the same to the monthly meeting in 
which the proposal of marriage is made. 

Advised to It is affectionately advised, that marriages be 
don, &c. accomplished decently, gravely, and weightily ; 
and that the parties themselves, their parents, 
and others concerned, do take care that mode- 
ration be observed, and no reproach arise, or 
occasion of offence be given; but that all 
behave with such sobriety as becomes a people 
fearing God. If any thing to the contrary be 
observed, the overseers or other concerned 
Friends present, ought in brotherly love to 
admonish to a better behaviour. And the said 
Overseers overseers are to make report to the next 
to repor monthly meeting, whether this advice concern- 
ing good order and moderation has been ob- 
served, and take care that the marriage certifi- 
cate be recorded. 

Form of The form of which certificate shall be as 


follows : 

Whereas, A. B. of , in the 

county of , in , son of 

C. B. of and H. his wife; and 

D. E. daughter of F. E. of and 

M. his wife, having declared their intentions 
of marriage with each other, before a monthly 
meeting of the religious Society of Friends, 
held at , according to the good' 


jrder used among them \jvhere the parties art 
under the care of parents or guardians, add] 
and having eonsent of parents or guardians 
concerned [as the case is] their said proposal of 
marriage was allowed of by the said meeting. 
Now these are to certify whom it may concern, 
that for the full accomplishment of their said 

intentions, this day of the 

month, in the year of our Lord , 

they, the said A. B. and D. E. appeared in a 
public meeting* of the said Society, held at 

aforesaid; and the said A. B. 

taking the said D. E. by the hand, did, on this 
solemn occasion, openly declare, that he took 
her, the said D. E. to be his wife, promising, 
with Divine assistance, to be unto her a loving 
and faithful husband, until death should sepa- 
rate them; and then, in the same assembly, 
the said D. E. did in like manner declare, that 
she took him, the said A. B. to be her husband, 
promising, with Divine assistance, to be unto 
him a loving and faithful wife, until death 
should separate them. And moreover, they, 
the said A. B. and D. E. (she according to the 
custom of marriage, assuming the name of her 
husband) did, as a further confirmation thereof, 
then and there to these presents set their 

* When the marriage is accomplished at a private house, instead 
of the words, "in a public meeting of the said Society, held at 

aforesaid," say, "at the house of .... in the 

of " 

5 D 




And we whose names are also hereunto sub- 
scribed, being present at the solemnization 
of the said marriage and subscription, have, 
as witnesses thereto, set our hands, the day 
and year above written. 

A. B. 


No misde- 
meanor to 
be trea- 
sured up 

Advised, that no misdemeanor be treasured 
up against a person until the time of present- 
ing proposals of marriage, and then started, 
though perhaps long before done, and known 
to those who object to it at that time: which 
is a wrong thing, and should be checked and 
discouraged in all meetings. 

No pro- 
than one 
year after 
death of 
and wife. 


No monthly meeting ought to permit any 
marriage to be proposed in said meeting, sooner 
than one year after the death of husband or 

That marriages of persons nearly related 
by consanguinity, may as much as in us lies 
be prevented, this Meeting concludes, that no 
marriage between any so near akin as first 
cousins shall be permitted amongst us. The 
term " first cousins" fully applies to every de- 
scription of grandchildren descended from one 
common parent. 

It is advised that Friends exercise a reli- 


tions. gious care in watching over their children, and 


endeavour to guard them against improper or 
unequal connections in marriage; that they be 
not anxious to obtain for them large portions 
and settlements; but that they be joined with 
persons of religious inclinations, suitable dis- 
positions, and diligence in their business: 
which are necessary to a comfortable life in a 
married state. 

In order, as much as may be, to prevent Mixed 
mixed marriages, or the accomplishment of n 
marriages out of our comely order, parents 
and Friends are tenderly advised to an increas- 
ing care of the youth; early to admonish and 
instruct them in the principles of Truth, by 
upright example as well as precept; and en- 
deavour to impress their minds with the duty 
of religiously observing them; as much as 
possible restraining 'them from such company 
as is likely to entangle their affections in an 
improper manner. 

Let those of our members be admonished Admoni- 
who keep company with persons not of our 
Society, in order for marriage; or who are 
present themselves, or consent to their chil- 
dren being present at marriages of those not 
in membership, which are accomplished by the 
assistance of a priest or hireling minister. 

And when any of our members do join in Mixed 
marriage with those of other principles and marna 2 e8 



and by a 



Cause of 



the appro- 
bation of 
the month- 
ly meet- 

No im- 
moral con- 
duct, &c. 




One party 
not in 

professions of religion; or accomplish their 
marriage by the assistance of a priest; or are 
present at the marriage of a member accom- 
plished by the official interference of a priest 
or hireling minister, they should be treated 
with in order to convince them of the impro- 
priety of their proceeding; and if not brought 
to a sense of their deviation, so as to make 
satisfaction to the meeting, let them be testified 

If any member of our Society accomplish 
his or her marriage without the approbation 
of the monthly meeting, and it should appear 
by the report of a committee appointed to visit 
him or her, that no immoral conduct, nor breach 
of our testimonies has taken place in the ac- 
complishment of said marriage, and that the 
party is desirous of retaining a right of mem- 
bership, monthly meetings may be at liberty 
to retain such member, without requiring a 
written acknowledgment. But when both par- 
ties are amenable to our discipline, and not 
giving a satisfactory acknowledgment in writ- 
ing, they are to be testified against as for 
other breaches of the discipline. (1846.) 

It is not intended to leave monthly meet- 
ings at liberty to continue those in membership 
who marry their first cousins, without a satis- 
factory acknowledgment in writing. (1846.) 

As there are many persons not in member- 
ship with us, who are not of other principles 


or professions of religion, but who manifest an member- 

. . . ""P 

interest in the maintenance of our testimonies, 

it is concluded that, when any such person is 
about to proceed in Marriage with a member, 
he or she shall be at liberty to make applica- 
tion to the men and women Overseers of the 
Monthly Meeting to which the member be- 
longs ; when, if the Overseers are satisfied, the 
proposals of marriage may be laid before the 
Monthly Meeting in the usual form ; and the 
Meeting shall make inquiry, and have the same 
care and oversight of the marriage, and pro- 
ceed in the manner prescribed by Discipline 
where both are members of the same Monthly 
Meeting. But these proceedings shall not 
give a right of membership to such persons or 
to their offspring. (1866.) 


It is recommended to Quarterly and monthly Titles to be 
meetings to make timely and careful in spec- lnspecte 
don into the situation of the titles of meeting 
houses, burial grounds, and other estates which 
have been vested in trustees, and by them held 
for the use and benefit of the Society at large, 
or of any of those meetings; so that if it 
should appear needful by the death of any Trusts re- 
such trustees or otherwise, due and seasonable 
care may be taken to appoint some others to 
the trust; that future difficulties and the risk 
of being deprived of such estates may be 
avoided. And it is further recommended, that 
Quarterly and monthly meetings respectively 
as the case may require, keep exact records 
of all such trusts and conveyances ; and also Care of 
that a clear and regular account be kept by l^utes, 
each respective meeting, of the place where, antl 
and the persons with whom the papers, minutes 
and records belonging to our religious society 
are from time to time deposited; wherein due 
care should be taken to lodge them with suit- 
able Friends. 




Four from In order that this Yearly Meeting may be 
teriymeet- properly represented in the intervals thereof, 
mg it is directed that each Quarterly meeting pro- 

duce, in their reports to the Yearly Meeting 
annually, the names of four suitable Friends, 
to constitute together a Representative Com- 
mittee, or Meeting for Sufferings, to be held 
and regulated according to the following rules: 

Minutes. First. The said Committee shall keep fail 
minutes of all its proceedings, and annually 
lay them before the Yearly Meeting. 

Quorum. Second. No less number than twelve of the 
members attending, shall constitute a meeting 
capable of transacting any business. 

Notice to Third. On all occasions of uncommon im- 
e glven portance, previous notice thereof shall be given, 
or sent, to all the members, if practicable. 

May sit on Fourth. The said Committee may sit on its 
joum- own adjournments, and order these, as well as 
ments - the times of its stated meetings, according to 
the business before them. 



The services confided to this Committee, 
are, in general: 

First To represent this Yearly Meeting Not to 
during its recess, and to act on its behalf in w uh faith 
cases where the welfare of our religious society °^ scl " 
may render it needful. But it is not to med- 
dle with any matter of faith or discipline. 

Second. To procure and distribute such Books, 
books, or pamphlets, as may be a means of 
spreading the knowledge of our religious prin- 
ciples or testimonies; and to advise or assist Assist in 
any of our members, on their own application, £* 
who may incline to publish any such manu- 
script or work, as may tend to promote the 
cause of Truth, or be beneficial to society. 

Third. To render advice and assistance to Advise 
meetings, at their request, on subjects relating ^ to DS 
to property, titles to lands, the renewal of trust9 ' &<v 
trusts, and the application of public gifts and 

Fourth. To receive from the several Quarterly Sufferings 
meetings their annual accounts of sufferings, 
and also such memorials concerning deceased 
Friends, as those meetings may have concurred Memori 
with, that when examined and approved, they a 
may be laid before the Yearly Meeting ; or 
otherwise be returned to the respective Quar- 
terly meetings for their revisal or correction. 


AssiHt Fifth. To extend such advice and assistance 

under suf- t° 1U1 J individuals under suffering for our testi- 
fering. monies, as their cases may require; and, if 
necessary, to apply to the government, or per- 
sons in authority, on their behalf. 

To cone- Sixth, To correspond with representative 
* pon bodies of "other Yearly Meetings, as occasions 

may require, on concerns of general interest to 

the Society. 

Concerned It is also agreed, that although none are 
may be properly members of the Representative Com- 
tTaoend m ^ ttee ? Dl, t sucn as are appointed by direction 
of the Yearly Meeting as aforesaid, yet that 
other Friends, at the discretion of said Com- 
mittee, may be permitted to attend when they 
feel a concern so to do. 

Supply va- When any vacancy occurs in the Repre- 
sentative Committee during the recess of the 
Yearly Meeting, by death or otherwise, the 
Quarterly meeting within whose limits such 
vacancy happens, ought to take early care to 
supply it by a new appointment. (1834.) 



Dear Friends, keep all your meetings in the 

authority, wisdom, and power of Truth, and 

unity of the blessed Spirit; and the God of 

peace be with you. And it is advised, that Unbecom- 

such as come late to meetings, or when there hlmour 

fall asleep, or are restless, or do not stay in the lu meetp 
* 7 j mgs re- 

meeting, but go forth unnecessarily, or other- quirea ad 

, .-. , ! . , , monition. 

wise demean themselves unbecoming our holy 
profession on those solemn occasions, be ten- 
derly and seasonably admonished. 

We exhort all to a Christian exercise and Zeal m 

zeal in the performance of worship to Almighty Lceofdi 

God: and as we are not capable in our own \ me wor " 

7 m r snip re- 

strength to perform this great duty, we recom- commend 

mend to a diligent waiting in true silence and 
retirement of mind, for the renewed sense of 
the inward power and virtue of his Spirit, 
whereby we shall be qualified to worship him 
in an acceptable manner. Let our faithfulness 
and sincerity herein appear, by the humility, 
meekness and circumspection of our lives and 
conversation, <tdorning the' doctrines and prin- 
ciples of Truth, as they were declared by Christ 
and his apostles : those who have been pre- 
served in faithfulness therein, having to testify 
from that experience which cannot deceive, 



that it hath been very profitable; and there- 
fore cannot be easy without encouraging and 
putting forward their children, apprentices and 
servants to this religious duty, as well as other 
behaviour suitable thereunto. And if this use- 
ful practice was more generally attended to, it 
would do more for us and them than any out- 
ward acquisition of wealth; and without doubt, 
some of those who have been placed under our 
direction, may with thankfulness have to view 
our pious care in taking them from worldly 
business to seek a city eternal in the heavens. 

This Meeting recommends, that Friends < 

who are exercised in the discipline would 

early extend their love and care, in visiting 

such amongst us who neglect their duty in at- 

wnfui tending our meetings for public worship. And 

meetings as a wilful neglect of this important duty is a 

cause of Hia nifest evidence of ingratitude to the Divine 

disown- ° 

ment. Being, contrary to the example and practice 
of the primitive believers in Christ, and our 
religious testimony; it is the sense of this 
Meeting, that as such who are thus insensible 
of their religious duty, disunite themselves 
from Christian fellowship with Friends, monthly 
meetings, after having fully discharged their 
duty towards them, and finding their en- 
deavours to reclaim them ineffectual, should 
testify our disunion with them. 

Drowsi- As the minds of many are turned towards 


Friends, and the appearance of a drowsy spirit oess ai 

!• « ,• rr 3 meetings 

in our religious meetings, is offensive, and may ff ensi v e . 
be a cause of stumbling to sober inquirers, it is 
earnestly desired that this weakness may not 
exist among us. And as indulgence therein Caution 
v ust necessarily have a disqualifying effect, it employing 
ii the souse and judgment of this Meeting, that suehiuth« 

, , . Ill services of 

Quarterly, monthly, and other meetings should discipline, 
be cautious of employing such members in the 
weighty services of the discipline. 


If any monthly meeting should, under solid 
consideration, believe it necessary to prepare a 
memorial concerning any deceased Friend whe 
had been a member thereof, it is to go to the 
respective Quarterly meeting; where, being 
duly weighed and agreed to, it is then to be 
forwarded to the meeting for sufferings, for in- 
spection and approbation, previous to its being 
laid before this Meeting 


Care in It is our earnest desire, that both ministers 

tenderness and elders may be as nursing fathers and mo- 

y oung 8 in i * ievs to tllose tntlt ^ y oun S m tlle minifltiy, 
the minis- and with all care and diligence advise and ad- 
try. * 

monish them; and if they see occasion, reprove 

them in a tender and Christian spirit, according 
to the rules of our discipline and counsel of 
Friends in that respect; also exhort them fre- 
quently to read the holy scriptures, and ear- 
nestly seek the mind of the Spirit of truth, to 
open the mysteries thereof; that, abiding in a 
simple and patient submission to the will of 
God, and keeping down to the openings of Di- 
vine love and life in themselves, they may 
witness a gradual growth in their gifts, and be 
preserved from extending their declarations 
further than they find the life and power of 
Truth to bear them up. 

Ministers And our advice to all our ministers is, that 
i„l s Tr lj tne J De frequent in reading the scriptures of 
drawing {} ie ij lin d new testaments : and if any in the 

unsound . . . in* i i 

inferences course of their ministry shall misapply, or draw 
*cr™>- the unsound inferences or wrong conclusions from 
tures, or t j ie t ex + or shall misbehave themselves in 

for misbe- 

haviour,to point oi conduct or conversation, let them be 


admonished in love and tenderness by the be a dmo- 
elders or overseers where they live, and if they ms 
prove refraetory and refuse to acknowledge 
their faults, let them be further dealt with, in 
the wisdom of Truth, as the case may require. 

As the occasion of our religious meetings is Order in 
solemn, a care should ever be maintained to ™ 
guard against any thing that would tend to 
disorder or confusion therein. When any think 
they have aught against what is publicly de- 
livered, they should speak to the party pri- 
vately and orderly; and, if any shall oppose a Public op- 
ministering Friend in his or her preaching or jesters 
exhortation, or keep on the hat, or show any in unit ? 

7 m m x 7 y requires 

remarkable dislike to such when engaged in speedy ad 
prayer, let them be speedily admonished in ™ 
such manner as may be requisite ; unless the 
person against whom the uneasiness is ex- 
pressed has been disowned by a monthly meet- 
ing, or his or her public appearances disap- 
proved by the elders. 

This Meeting agrees, that each monthly Eiders to 
meeting choose two or more Friends of each be chosen 
sex to sit with the ministers, and they together 
to compose a meeting to be denominated a pre- 
parative meeting of ministers and elders; taking 
care that the Friends chosen for that service be 
prudent, solid Friends, and that they do care- 
fully discharge the trust confided to them. 



Mode of When there is occasion for the appointment 
ei^ers ntmg °f oue or more elders in any meeting, the pro- 
posal of separating a committee to consider the 
subject, should be first made in a monthly 
meeting, and when there united with, a proper 
number of suitable Friends should be appointed. 
And in this committee, the names of the persons 
who may be thought suitable should be first 
mentioned, and, when concurred with, reported 
to the monthly meeting, without consulting the 
person or persons, or otherwise divulging it. 
If upon due consideration the nomination is 
approved, a minute should be made, and a copy 
thereof forwarded to the Quarterly meeting of 
ministers and elders. 

mav be 

The discipline never was intended to deprive 
removed monthly meetings of the liberty to remove 
, wheu \ he 7 elders from their station, at any time when 

lose then* J 

service. such meetings might believe thev had lost their 
service by unfaithfulness or otherwise. (1829.) 

Committee It is recommended to our monthly meetings, 
printed'' 11 " that a committee be appointed at least once in 
onoe m f our years, and as much oftener as the occasion 

four years. . 

may require, to consider the propriety of 
changing the elders, and of brinsrinr forward 
well qualified Friends to fill that station. 

Commit- The Meeting united in the conclusion, that 
fouryears! a committee shall be appointed once in four 



fears, or oftener if required, to consider the 
propriety of changing the elders, without en- 
joining it en monthly meetings to make any 
change, unless it is deemed necessary. It Names to 
being distinctly understood, that whether any 1/^°" 
change is made or not, the committee shall m fr 
bring the names to the monthly meeting for 
its judgment ; and that the information of said 
appointments be transmitted by minute to the Quarterly 
Quarterly meeting of ministers and elders, as ^nistifrB 
already required by the discipline. (1836.) "J^jjjjj* 

When any Friend has frequently appeared Manner in 

i • • , • • • j i which mi- 

lll our religious meetings as a minister, and n i stersare 

the preparative meeting of ministers and elders to be 

11 # ° m recom- 

apprehends that it is seasonable the subject mended, 
should claim the attention of the monthly 
meeting for discipline, of which the person is a 
member, they are at liberty to mention the 
matter therein; and if the monthly meeting, 
after deliberate consideration, should unite in 
believing that a gift in the ministry has been 
committed to him or her, a minute expressive 
thereof should be forwarded to the Quarterly 
meeting of ministers and elders, where, the 

~ 7 7 

case being solidly weighed, and the sense of 
the monthly meeting concurred with, informa- 
tion thereof should be sent to the preparative 
meeting of ministers and elders of which the 
party is to be a member. And until the ap- 
probation of the Quarterly meeting of ministers 
and elders is obtained, no such Friend is to be 


received as a minister, nor permitted to sit in 
the meetings of ministers and elders, nor travel 
Not to abroad as a minister. And no such approved 
meetings minister is to appoint any meeting out of the 
Qulrferf 6 nT ™ ts °f tne Quarterly meeting to which he 
meeting or she belongs, without a certificate from the 
certm- monthly meeting for discipline, or the con- 
cates. currence thereof. 

Eiders a P - It is the judgment of this Meeting, that 
Kater^ 8 when any Friend appointed to the station of 
an elder believes him or herself called to the 
ministry, and shall have appeared frequently 
in that capacity in our public religious meet- 
ings, they should withdraw from the meetings 
of ministers and elders. 

Ministers Agreed, that when an approved minister 
to travel believes it right to pay a religious visit beyond 
a [ e ^ r ap " the limits of the Quarterly meeting to which 
minutes, he or she belongs, the concern be opened in 
both the men's and women's monthly meet- 
ings, for their consideration and judgment; 
and if approved, the certificate or minute to 
be signed by the clerks of the men's and 
women's meetings. And when the prospect is 
of such an extent as to require the approba- 
tion of the Quarterly meeting, the like proceed- 
Andre- ings take place therein. (1837.) And it is ad- 
seasoD-° m vised, that when the service is accomplished, 
abl y- the said meetings be informed thereof, and the 
certificate returned without unnecessary delay. 


Agreed, that when any Friend is religiously Religious 
concerned to make a visit, to the meetings of yo s nd tlie 
Friends beyond the limits of this Yearly Meet- l! mit ' of , 

J the 1 early 

ing, and has obtained a certificate for that Meeting. 
purpose from the monthly meeting of which 
he or she is a member, that the concern be 
also laid before the respective Quarterly meet- 
ing for its concurrence and endorsement, to be 
signed by the clerks of the men's and women's 
meetings. But if the concern be only to 
attend one of the Yearly Meetings on this con- 
tinent, and to take such meetings as may be 
on the wav thither, or on the return from 
thence, or to visit the meetings within one or 
two Quarterly meetings adjacent to the limits 
of this Yearly Meeting, and which belong 
either to the Yearly Meeting of New York or 
Maryland, the concurrence of the monthly 
meeting therewith, signified by their certificate 
or minute, will be sufficient. (1812. 1837.) 

If the concern is to make a religious visit Reiigioua 
beyond sea, the certificate should be signed by y ^d s b *i. 
the men's and women's monthly meetings 
generally, and then go forward to superior 
meetings for concurrence. (1837.) 

It is recommended, that when the concern 
of a Friend for the performance of a religious 
visit to meetings within the limits of this 
Yearly Meeting, is united with by the monthly 
meeting of which he or she is a member, that 
6* E 


the said monthly meeting do carefully ex- 
Means to amine, and see that the service may not be 
expenses * impeded, or the individual improperly bur- 
°fous h dened, for want of requisite means to defray 
visits. the expenses of such a journey. And where 
the concern extends beyond the limits of this 
Yearly Meeting, the like care should weightily 
rest upon, and be attended to by the Quarterly 
meeting to which the Friend belongs. (1809.) 

Expenses When any Friend is drawn to make a reli- 
beyund gious visit beyond sea, and the concern is 
united with in the respective meetings, accord- 
ing to the mode prescribed by the discipline, 
such committee as the Yearly Meeting may 
appoint for . the purpose, should take care for 
the assistance of the individual when needful, 
and to anpropriate so much of the stock of the 
Meeting, as they may judge proper, for pay- 
ment of the expenses incurred in the perform- 
ance of the service. (1809.) 

prepare- The ministers and elders of each monthly 
ingofmi- meeting are to meet once in three months at 
such time and place as the monthly meeting 
may direct, in the capacity of a preparative 
meeting of ministers and elders ; when, after 
a time of solid retirement, the queries ad- 
dressed to such meetings are to be read and 
considered, and distinct answers made to them 
in writ'ng; which, when signed by the clerk, 
are to be conveyed to the ensuing Quarterly 

and elders. 


meeting of ministers and elders by two or 
more Friends to be mentioned in the report as 
representatives. But if, in the course of in- 
quiry, any deficiency has appeared, care should 
be taken that it be remedied. 

And in the said Quarterly meetings, trie Quarterly 
queries are also to be read with the answers JSSStoB 
which are brought from their preparative and eiders, 
meetings, and the state of the members 
weightily considered; that where occasion re- 
quires it, advice and counsel may be season- 
ably extended : and once a year those answers, 
comprised in a written report and signed by 
the clerk, are to be forwarded to the Yearly 
Meeting of ministers and elders, by four or 
more Friends appointed as representatives. 
In this Meeting, the queries are "also to be Yearly 
read with the answers from the several Quar- IJfmSJfs- 
ters, and the state of this part of the Society ^s and 
being collected and considered, advices adapted 
thereto may, if requisite, be issued to the sub- 
ordinate meetings of the like kind. And such Certiii- 
ministers as propose to go in Truth's service CJ 
beyond sea, after obtaining a certificate of the JjJJJ 
concurrence of the monthly meeting, endorsed 
by the respective Quarter, are to spread their 
concerns before the Yearly Meeting of minis- 
ters and elders, and produce the said certifi- 
cates; and if, upon solid consideration, the 
same are united with, a certificate thereof 
signed by the clerk, should be granted. 



Not to in 
with meet- 
ings for 

None of the said meetings of ministers and 
elders are in any wise to interfere with the 
business of any meeting for discipline ; nor is 
the Yearly Meeting of ministers and elders to 
suffer its adjournments to interfere with the 
sittings of the Yearly Meeting for discipline. 

over the 

We tenderly recommend faithful Friends, 
and especially ministers and elders, to watch 
over the flock of Christ in their respective 
places and stations, always approving them- 
selves by their pious examples in conversation 
and conduct, to be such as faithfully and dili- 
gently walk up to the testimony of the blessed 
Truth, whereunto the Lord hath gathered us 
in this his gospel day. 

of those 
who lose 
their ser- 

And if any acknowledged member of our 
meetings of ministers and elders shall at any 
time be thought, by negligence, unfaithfulness, 
or otherwise, to have lost his or her service in 
that station, so as to become the subject of un- 
easiness and burdensome, (yet not so as to be 
under the care of a meeting of discipline on 
that account, or for misconduct,) it is advised, 
that a timely and tender care be extended to 
such person according to gospel order ; first by 
the individuals concerned, and then by the 
preparative meeting of ministers and elders to 
which he or she may belong : should these 
labours prove unavailing, report of the case 
should be made by that meeting to the Quar- 


terly meeting of ministers and elders, and 
there a few Friends be deputed to assist the 
said preparative meeting in a further extension 
of labour with the party: if this also prove 
unavailing, and on report thereof to the said 
Quarterly meeting, it appears that the said 
preparative meeting has fully discharged its 
duty to the individual, the ease should then 
be transmitted to the monthly meeting for dis- 
cipline of which the party is a member, and 
left under its care; and he or she ought from 
that time to refrain from attending any such 
select meetings until they shall be again re- 
commended or appointed as at first. 


Advised, that none accustom themselves to idiecom- 
vain and idle company, sipping and tippling of 1™J' 
drams and strong drink; for though such who drink - &c 
use that evil practice may not suddenly be- 
come drunken to the greatest degree, yet they 
often thereby become like ground fitted for the 
seeds of the greatest transgressions ; and some 
who have had the good example of virtuous 
parent* have from small beginnings arrived 
to a sha >eful excess, to their ruin, the great 


injury of their families, and the scandal of 
the religious profession they have made. 

It having been observed that a pernicious 

custom has prevailed upon people, of giving 

rum and other strong liquors to excite some to 

bid at vendues to advance the price, which, 

strong besides the injustice of the artifice, is scandal- 

liquors ° 7 

at ven- ous, and leads to intemperance and disorder ; 

it is therefore the unanimous sense of this 
Meeting to caution Friends against the same. 
And if any under our profession do fall into 
this evil practice, by giving or taking strong 
liquors at vendues, or countenance or promote 
any noisy gatherings, they should be speedily 
dealt with as disorderly persons, and if they 
cannot be brought to a sense of their error, 

importing Many just and pertinent remarks being 
tog spin- made in this Meeting, clearly setting forth the 
tuous n- corrupting, debasing, and ruinous effects, con- 

quors. i o7 ° 7 7 

sequent on the importation and retailing large 
quantities of distilled spirits, whereby the in- 
temperate use of them is greatly aided and en- 
couraged, to the impoverishment of many, dis- 
tempering the constitutions and understandings 
of many more, and increasing vice and disso- 
luteness in the land, wherewith many reli- 
giously attentive minds have been long painfully 
burdened ; it is the united sense of the Meet- 
ing, that well-concerned Friends in all quar- 


ters, be earnestly excited to suffer the affecting 
importance of this mighty evil, religiously to 
impress their minds, and animate them with a 
lively concern to excite honest endeavours, 
both by example and loving entreaty, to cau- 
tion and dissuade all our members from being 
concerned in the importation or retailing dis- 
tilled spirits, or giving countenance thereto. 

It is affectionately recommended, that Friends Modera- 
be careful to use moderation on account of marriages, 
marriages, births and burials, and on all other &c * 
occasions; a departure from which being a 
cause of stumbling to many, and a great ob- 
struction to a more full reformation, as well as 
attended with other evil consequences, tending 
to obscure that light which we have to hold up 
to others, and should have more abundantly, 
if we were faithful ; lessening that savour which 
we ought ever carefully to preserve, agreeably 
to the monition of the holy apostle, " Let your 
moderation be known unto all men, the Lord 
is at hand." Phil. iv. 5. And as the all-seeing 
eye beholds our thoughts, and views us in all our 
ways and actions, what manner of men ought 
we to be in all godliness of life, and sobriety 
of deportment ! 

And if any should distil spirits, or sell such Distilling 
liquors, monthly meetings should deal with JJJirits. Dg 
them as with other offenders, and if they can- 
not be prevailed with to desist from such a 


Monthly practice, be at liberty to declare their disunity 
Z?S with them. (1832.) ' 

with distil- 

Monthly meetings ought to take an early 
opportunity, tenderly to treat with such of our 
members as are concerned, either in the impor- 
tation, distillation or sale of spirituous liquors. 
And if, after faithful, patient labour to convince 
them of the awful, demoralizing effects of their 
conduct, and its inconsistency with the testi- 
mony of our religious society, they cannot be 
prevailed upon to relinquish the business, the 
said meetings be at liberty to put the discipline 
in practice against them. (1832.) 

Liquors as A tender, religious care ought to be ex- 
a dnnk. ^ en( ] e( j f guc h f our members as are in the 

use of spirituous liquors as a drink, or handing 
it out in harvest, or at other times, in order to 
dissuade them from the practice. (1832.) 

Renting Friends are also tenderly advised, to abstain 

property, £ rQJQ ren ting their property or furnishing any 
materials whereby our testimony against spiri- 
tuous liquors, as a drink, will be violated. 


It appears to have been the concern of this Testimony 
Meeting, revived from time to time with in- slavery 
creasing weight, to testify their entire disunity gj^ e tl,e 
with the practice of enslaving mankind, (and trade 
particularly to guard all in membership with 
us against being concerned in the purchase of 
slaves from the coasts of Africa,) yet as we have 
with sorrow to observe, that in some parts of 
our country this shameful practice is still con 
tinued and connived at, we think it proper to 
revive the advices heretofore issued, and again 
exhort our members to be no way accessory to 
this enormous national evil, but to discourage 
it by all the justifiable means in their power; 
it being obvious, that wherever it prevails it 
tends to corrupt the morals of the people, so as 
not only to render them obnoxious to the dis- 
pleasure of the Almighty, but deaf to his warn- 
ings, and insensible and regardless of his im- 
pending judgments. 

And we earnestly desire it may become the This op- 
concern of our members generally, to use the ETto be 
influence thev have with those who hold slaves instru ct- 

J m ed, advi3- 

by inheritance or otherwise, that they may be ed and as- 
treated with moderation and kindness, and in- 
structed as objects of the common salvation in 

7 77 


the principles of the Christian religion; as well 
as in such branches of school-learning as may 
fit them for freedom,' and to become useful 
members of civil society. Also that Friends in 
their several neighbourhoods advise and assist 
such of the black people as are at liberty, in 
the education of their children, and common 
worldly concerns. 

Hiring Understanding that some in membership 

with us, either through inadvertence or from 
selfish motives, have hired slaves to assist them 
in their business; we desire such to consider, 
that in so doing they promote the unrighteous 
traffic and oppose our testimony against it. 
And it is our sense, that when slaves are thus 
hired, and the price of their services is intended 
for the benefit of those who claim the right of 
ownership, and not designed or applied to pro- 
mote the liberation of the slave or slaves, such 
conduct is a violation of our testimony. And 
where any among us cannot be persuaded to 
relinquish the practice, monthly meetings be 
at liberty, after patient labour has been found 
unavailing, to testify their disunity with them. 

Caution to Friends are also cautioned against acting as 
and ad- executors or administrators to estates where 



slaves are bequeathed; and* doing any thing 
whereby their bondage may be prolonged. 

We are united in judgment, that the state 


of the black people who have been held as Kindness 
slaves by any of us or our predecessors, calls t0 them " 
for a deep inquiry and close examination, how 
far we are clear of withholding from them 
what under such an exercise may be opened to 
our view as their just right; and we earnestly 
and affectionately entreat those in particular 
who have released any of them, to attend to 
the further openings of duty. Even if no such 
obligations to this people existed among us, it 
is worthy of our serious consideration, whether 
any object of beneficence is more deserving of 
our regard, than that of training up their 
youth in such virtuous principles and habits, 
as may render them useful and respectable 
members of the community. 

It is the sense and judgment of this Meet- importing, 
ing, that if any of our members are concerned ^4^- 
in importing, selling, or purchasing; or shall |ng,orgiv- 
give away or transfer any negro or other slave, slaves. 
with or without any other consideration than 
to clear their estate of any future incumbrance, 
or in such manner that their bondage is con- 
tinued beyond the time limited by law or cus- 
tom for white persons; and also those who 
accept of such gift or assignment ; — they ought 
to be speedily treated with in the spirit of true 
love and wisdom, and the iniquity of their 
'jonduct laid before them. And if, after Chris- 
tian labor, they cannot be brought to such a 
sense of their injustice, as to do every thing 


which the monthly meeting shall judge to be 
reasonable and necessary, for the restoring 
such slave to his or her natural and just right 
to liberty, and condemn their deviation from 
the law of righteousness and equity, to the 
satisfaction of the said meeting, that such 
member or members be testified against as 
other transgressors are by the rules of our dis- 
cipline for other immoral, unjust, or reproach- 
ful conduct. 

It appearing that, notwithstanding the man) 

afflictive dispensations with which Divine wis 

dom has seen meet to visit this land, many of 

its inhabitants are so deaf to the language of 

the rod, as to continue in the nefarious traffic 

for slaves to the coasts of Africa; and that the 

importation of them is still connived at: this 

The meet- Meeting, considering such a conduct as a bold 

sufferings an d impious defiance of the Ruler of nations, 

to dis- . m d pregnant with the most alarming conse- 

courage ■ ° ° _ 

the slave quences to our country, earnestly recommends 
to the meeting for sufferings to embrace every 
suitable opportunity for advancing our testi- 
mony in this respect, and for calling the atten- 
tion of the public mind to this awfully in- 
teresting subject. 



Adviskd, that our Christian testimony be Testimony 
faithfully maintained against the burden and ^^ 
imposition of oaths, according to the express command 

1 , ? . . » , of Christ. 

command of Christ and the injunction of the 
apostle James, viz. "Ye have heard that it 
hath been said by them of old time, Thou 
shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt perforin 
unto the Lord thine oaths; but 1 say unto you, 
swear not at all : neither by heaven, for it is 
God's throne; nor by the earth, for it is his 
footstool; neither by Jerusalem, for it is the 
city of the great king. Neither shalt thou 
swear by thy head, because thou canst not 
make one hair white or black : but let your 
communication be, yea, yea; nay, nay; foi 
whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil." 
Mat. v. 33 to 37. 

"But above all things, my brethren, swear 
not, neither by heaven, neither by the earth, 
neither by any other oath; but let your yea, 
be yea; and your nay, nay; lest ye fall into 
condemnation." James v. 12. 

From the year 1718 to 1771, divers minutes P ftrti f t0 

. . the ad- 

of this Meeting appear, declaring that oaths ministra- 
administered by clerks or others under the ^ a ° 




lotice and connivance of Friends, either in 
court or elsewhere, violate our ancient testi- 
mony. And it is earnestly recommended to 
Quarterly and monthly meetings, that where 
any under our name are parties to the ad- 
ministration of oaths, to be careful to proceed 
in dealing with them; and if they will not 
decline the practice and give suitable satisfac- 
tion to the meeting they belong to, A o testily 
against them agreeably to the rules of our 

Deviation As it is our duty to support our Christian 

d^own°- testimony against oaths, faithful Friends are 

ment. desired to extend labor in love towards those 

who deviate therefrom ; and if such labor 

proves unsuccessful, monthly meetings should 

testify their disunity with them. 

And Friends in all places are exhorted, 
carefully to avoid electing or promoting their 
brethren to such stations in civil government 
as may subject them to the temptation of 
violating this testimony : and where any mem- 
bers show an inclination or desire of soliciting 
or accepting of such offices, timely care should 
be taken to caution them against it. And in 
the execution of instruments of writing re- 
wituessc*. quiring witnesses, it is recommended that 
Friends endeavor to procure such persona 
for this purpose, as will attest the same by 


It is recommended, that in every monthly Appoint 
meeting a proper number of faitlful and 

judicious men and women belonging to each 
of the particular or preparative meetings, be 
appointed to the station of overseers within 
the same : whose duty it is to exercise a Their 
vigilant and tender care over their fellow- nj ' 
members; that if any thing repugnant to the 
harmony and good order of the Society appears 
among them, it may be timely attended to and 
not neglected. And to prevent the introduc- 
tion of all unnecessary and premature com- 
plaints to meetings of business, it is advised, 
if any member shall have cause of complaint 
against another, that it be mentioned to the 
overseers; who are to see that the party com- 
plained of has been treated with according to 
gospel order, previously to the case being re- 
ported to the preparative or monthly meeting. 
And it is desired that in dealing with any, it 
be done in the spirit of meekness and love, To be per 
patiently endeavoring to instruct and advise f^™)!,. 111 
them; which, if ineffectual, the preparative tian spirit 
meeting should be informed thereof; that, if 
needful, the case may be laid before the monthly 
meeting, of which, notice should be given to 
the party when it can be conveniently done. 




Commit tee It is further recommended to our monthly 

once in , ... 

three meetings, that a committee be appointed at 
years. \east once in three years, or as much oftener 
as the occasion may require, to consider the 
propriety of changing the overseers, and bring- 
ing forward in the improvement of their gifts, 
other Friends on whom a concern for the wel- 
fare of the Society rests. 

Serious And we tenderly exhort all our members 

tion. who may be rightly called into this or any 

other service of the church, not hastily to 
excuse themselves therefrom, but solidly to 
ponder the weighty advice of the apostle, 
"Feed the flock of God, which is among you, 
taking the oversight thereof, not by constraint, 
but willingly; not for filthy lucre, but of a 
ready mind; neither as lords over God's heri- 
tage, but being ensamples to the Hock: and 
when the chief Shepherd shall appear, ye shall 
receive a crown of glory that fadeth not away." 



In much love to the rising generation, we The rising 
exhort them to avoid the many vanities Lnd exhorted 
ensnaring corruptions to which they are ex- t0 avoi . d 

° m r J ensnaring 

posed. Bear in mind, dear youth, that "the corrup- 
fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom;" 
and that " a good understanding have all they 
who do his commandments." Psalm cxi. 10. 
Take the advice of godly parents, guardians 
and friends ; ever remembering that, next to 
our Creator, children ought to obey their 
parents, and that disobedience to them is a 
breach of the moral law, and was always 
offensive in the Divine sight. Submit to their 
reasonable requirings with cheerfulness, though 
these may sometimes thwart your own incli- 
nations, and answer them not frowardly or 
crossly. They watched over you and took 
care of you, when you were utterly unable to 
help or take care of yourselves. Why then 
should any of you grieve or wound their still 
anxious minds by a conduct which, because of 
its tendency to obstruct your welfare and hap- 
piness, you know they cannot approve ? Such 
as running into vain and expensive fashions; 
associating with corrupt and libertine persons; 
frequenting taverns and places of diversion; 
wasting your precious time in idle discourse, 



and drawing the affections and inflaming the 
passions one of another : all which we have no 
doubt the divine Monitor in your own breasts 
often pleads with you against, and shows to be 
destructive of your peace. We beseech you, 
as fathers and mothers, to attend to this 
heavenly Instructor, and dutifully yield to the 
correspondent tender advice of your friends. 
Shrink not from the cross of Christ in your 
garb, language or manners; but through a 
subjection of your wills to the Divine will in 
these and all other respects, walk answerably 
to the purity of our profession, and the sim- 
plicity and spirituality of our worship. So 
mav y ou De instructive examples to serious 
inquirers after Truth; and not of those who, 
under a profession thereof, are preferring their 
own crooked ways, and turning others aside 
from the footsteps of its followers. 

Obstinate It is advised, that where the pious exercise 
of parental care and authority is disregarded, 
and any of the youth in membership with us, 
appear obstinately determined to run into and 
copy after the vain and extravagant fashions 
of the world in their dress and address, ex- 
posing themselves to the corrupting influence 
of evil company and excesses, whereby design- 
ing persons may entangle their affections, and 
draw them into unsuitable and unhappy con- 
nections in marriage or otherwise, — that such 
be timely and tenderly treated with, and shown 


the dangerous tendency of their conduct: and Treated 
if they cannot be prevailed with to desist 
therefrom and amend their ways, they ought 
to be dealt with by their respective prepara- 
tive or monthly meetings, as in other cases of 
offence; and if, after due expostulation and 
forbearance, they prove irreclaimable, they 
may be testified against. 

And if any parents in membership with us, Parents 
willingly indulge their children or youth under chiidfenfn 
their care in such extravagance, liberties and exces8es - 
excesses, as are here pointed out, and persist 
in vindicating their conduct, they ought in like 
manner to be treated with and disowned. 

Friends are advised to bring up their chil- Children 
dren to habits of industry, placing them with among 
sober and exemplary members of the Society, Fneada - 
for instruction in such occupations as are con- 
sistent with our religious principles and testi- 
monies, that as far as in us lies they may be 
preserved in a becoming conduct and demeanor. 

And it is desired, that those whose circum- Children 
stances may furnish with ability for instructing [^ode- 
in useful and suitable employments, the chil- »teten»a 
dren of members who are in situations less 
affluent, may receive them into their families 
upon terms so moderate and equitable, as to 
remove every plausible reason for placing them 
with those not in membership with us. 


corrupt Advised, that all Friends both old and 
and y 0lin g keep out of the world's corrupt lan- 

to S be° nS S ua S e > marmers > va i n an d needless things and 
avoided, fashions, in apparel, buildings, and furniture 
of houses; some of which are immodest, inde- 
cent, and unbecoming. And that they avoid 
immoderation in the use of lawful things, which 
though innocent in themselves may thereby 
become hurtful; also such kinds of stuffs, 
colors and dress, as are calculated more to 
please a vain and wanton mind than for real 
Caution to usefulness. And let tradesmen and others, 
tradesmen mem ]3 ers f our religious Society, be ad- 
others, monished that they be not accessory to these 
evils; for we ought to take up our daily cross, 
minding the grace of God which brings salva- 
tion, and teaches to deny all ungodliness and 
worldly lusts, and to live soberly, righteously 
and godly in this present world, that we may 
adorn the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ in 
all things; so may we feel his blessing, and 
be instrumental in his hand for the good of 

Simplicity We tenderly exhort all, seriously to con- 
mended, sider the plainness and simplicity which the 
gospel enjoins, and to manifest it in their 



speech, apparel, furniture, salutations and con- 
versations; into which our forefathers were 
led by the Spirit of Christ, in conformity with 
his precepts and example ; and for which they 
patiently suffered long imprisonments and 
great persecutions ; being convinced that it 
was their duty thus to bear a testimony 
against the vain spirit of the world. 

The spirit of Truth, which led our ancients Truth 
to lay aside every thing unbecoming the follow- plainness. 
era of Christ, still leads in the same path, all 
who submit to its guidance; we therefore 
earnestly entreat all Friends to watch over 
themselves in this respect. The example of 
our blessed Saviour, his immediate followers, 
and of virtuous and holy men in all ages, 
ought to make a due impression on every 
considerate mind ; and especially on such 
as have hud the advantage of a guarded 



We also tenderly advise, that Friends take Plainness 
heed, especially those who should be exemplary witbouT 
toothers under their care, that they exercise respect °' 

7 J persons. 

plainness of speech without respect of persons, 
in all their converse among men; and not balk 
their testimony by a cowardly compliance, 
varying their language according to their com- 
pany; — a practice of very ill example, render- 
ing those who use it contemptible, and looked 
upon as a kind of hypocrites, even by those 



with whom they so comply. This seems to be 
cautioned against by the apostle, when he 
advises, 1 Tim., " That the deacons be grave, 
not double tongued ;" plainly importing that it 
is inconsistent with the gravity of the gospel. 


Advice It is advised, that the cases of all o \r mem- 

&nd assist- Ders wno are [ u indigent circumstance,* be duly 

ance to be ( ° _ J 

afforded, inspected, that advice and relief may b»; season- 
ably extended, and assistance afforded to them 
in such business as they are capable of. And 
in order to defray the expenses which their 
support and the education of their children 
will necessarily occasion, it is recommended to 
each monthly meeting of men and women 
Friends, to be open-hearted and liberal in sub- 
Funds to scriptions for raising and continuing funds for 
e raise . j| iese p ur p 0Ses . — that the meetings of each 
Treasurer sex should appoint a treasurer to receive the 
appointed ^^ ^ a comm i ttee f Sll itable Friends to 

account have the particular care of the poor; whose 
business it will be to visit, inspect into their 
wants, and relieve them. And in the exercise 
of this benevolent care, it is desired we may 
always guard against exposing the names or 


situations of our fellow-members. And an Situations 
appointment should be annually made of two f e ii w- 
or more Friends for settling the treasurer's membeM 

° not ex- 

account, and reporting its state to the meeting, posed. 

from man 


Let us keep in remembrance, that it is Gospel 
under the immediate teaching and influence JJJSura? 
of the holy Spirit that all acceptable worship 
is performed, and all true gospel ministry sup- 
plied; that this pure and powerful influence, in 
vessels sanctified and prepared by the Divine 
hand, is the essential qualification to that 
work; and that, as the gift is Divine, the ser- 
vice is freely and faithfully to be discharged, 
without any view to reward from man. 

And it is advised, that where any of our Support oj 
members are so regardless of this testimony as ministry 1 
to contribute to the support of an hireling 
ministry, and vindicate such conduct, that 
they be tenderly labored with to convince 
them of their error; but if this prove ineffec- 
tual, and they persist in their unfaithfulness, 
the monthly meetings to which they belong 

testifie 1 


should proceed to declare our disunity with 
them : such conduct being opposed to our 
testimony for the free ministry of the gos- 
pel, which is, "without money and without 

Attending And it is further advised, that Friends be 
others! P ° careful themselves, and discourage their chil- 
dren from attending the worship of those who 
are not in communion with us. (1841.) 


Mian- It is agreed that the nine queries belonging 


once a to meetings for discipline, be read, deliberately 
considered, and answered in each preparative 
and monthly meeting once a year; in order to 
convey an explicit account in writing to the 
Quarterly meetings next preceding the Yearly 
Meeting; that so this Meeting may be clearly 
informed of the state of all our meetings. 

when Also, that the first, second and eighth of 

second those queries be read, considered, and explicit 
and eighth answers to them made in writing in the two 

are to be „ . ... . . _ 

answered. Quarterly meetings preceding the one before 
mentioned, and also in the preparative and 


monthly meetings which report thereto. But 
none of the queries are to be read or answered 
in those Quarterly meetings for discipline 
which immediately succeed the Yearly Meet- 
ing, nor in the preparative or monthly meet- 
ings which report to those Quarters. 

It is not considered as obligatory on any when not 
meeting to read the above queries oftener than 
is here mentioned, or to read any others than 
such as are to be answered. Nor is the 
reading and answering of them enjoined on 
any preparative meeting, where the mem- 
bers of that and the monthly meeting are 
the same. 

It is further agreed, that at the time when A.ivwes 
the nine queries are read in the preparative ** ou to b« 
and monthly meetings, the advices and caution read oac * 

. . . a ye ftr - 

subjoined shall be also distinctly read and 
solidly pondered; as a means of putting the 
members present upon considering, whether 
there be any occasion for an extension of care 
in those respects: and, if there is, of stirring 
them up to a faithful discharge of their duty 
as individuals, one towards another. 

First Query. Are all our religious meetings 
for worship and discipline duly attended; is 
the hour observed ; and are Friends clear of 
sleeping, and of all other unbecoming behavior 
therein ? 


Second Query. Are love and ui ity maintained 
amongst yon? Are tale-bearing and detraction 
discouraged? And where any differences arise, 
are endeavors used speedily to end them ? 

Third Query. Are Friends careful to bring 
up those under their direction, in plainness of 
speech, behavior, and apparel; in frequent 
reading the holy scriptures; and to restrain 
them from reading pernicious books, and from 
the corrupt conversation of the world ? 

Fourth Query. Are Friends clear of the 
manufacture and sale of all intoxicating bever- 
ages ; do they refuse to rent their property for 
such purposes, and are they clear of signing 
applications for licenses to sell the same? Are 
they careful to discourage their use as a drink, 
and is due caution observed in the use thereof 
as a medicine ? Are they careful to discour- 
age the attendance of places of diversion and 
the unnecessary frequenting of taverns, and 
do they keep to moderation and temperance 
on account of marriages, burials and other 
occasions? (1887.) 

Fifth Query. Are poor Friends' necessities 
duly inspected, and they relieved or assisted 
in such business as they are capable of? Do 
their children freely partake of learning to fit 
them for business; and are they and other 
Friends' children placed among Friends? 

Sixth Query. Do you maintain a faithful 
testimony against oaths; an hireling ministry; 
bearing arms, training, and other military ser- 


vices; being concerned in any fraudulent ot 
clandestine trade ; buying or vending goods 
so imported, or prize goods; and against en- 
couraging lotteries of any kind? 

Seventh Query. Are Friends careful to live 
within the bounds of their circumstances, and 
to keep to moderation in their trade or busi- 
ness; are they punctual to their promises, and 
just in the payment of their debts; and are 
such as give reasonable grounds lor fear on 
these accounts, timely labored with for their 
preservation or recovery ? 

Eighth Query. Do you take due care regu- 
larly to deal with all offenders in the spirit of 
meekness, without partiality or unnecessary 
delay, in order for their help ; and where such 
labor is ineffectual, to place judgment upon 
them in the authority of Truth? 

Xhitli Qtiery. Is due care taken to keep a 
regular record of births and deaths ? 


x\nd in the preparative and monthly meet- Advi e*. 
ings, when all the foregoing queries are read 
and answered, the following advices are to be 
read with a suitable pause between them : 

As suitable marriage connections tend to the 0n mar 
promotion of our happiness and comfort in 
life, it is affectionately advised, that when any 
of our members are about to marry, they seek 




(jifts and 


.1 fairs, 
willy, &C. 

ing the 

for Divine counsel and direction therein ; and 
that their parents or guardians be early ac- 
quainted with their intentions. And it is 
recommended that marriages be accomplished 
decently, gravely, and weightily ; that modera- 
tion be observed, and that no cause of reproach 
occur ; but that all behave with such sobriety 
as becomes a people fearing God. (1842.) 

As we believe the use of tobacco is injurious 
in its effects, and especially upon the young, it 
is earnestly advised that Friends themselves 
abstain, and encourage their children, and all 
youth under their care, to abstain from the use 
of this narcotic in any of its various forms, 
and also that they do not engage in the culti- 
vation, manufacture or sale of the same. (1887). 

That all public gifts and legacies be strictly 
applied to the uses intended by the donors ; or, 
if any unforeseen occurrence should render 
such compliance difficult or impracticable, that 
an early application be made to the meeting 
for sufferings for its advice or assistance; and 
that timely care be taken for the renewal of 

That Friends intending removal be careful 
to apply for certificates ; and that the cases of 
such who remove without certificates, or of 
sojourners coming from other places and ap- 
pearing as Friends, without producing certifi- 
cates, be properly attended to. 

That Friends carefully inspect the state of 
their affairs once in the year ; and make their 
wills and settle their outward estates whilst 
in health. 

And it is further recommended, that in con- 
ducting the affairs of our meetings, Friends 


endeavor to manage them in the peaceable affairs of 
spirit and wisdom of Jesus, with decency, for- K 
bearance and love of each other. 

The following queries are also to be read, Annual 
considered and answered, once a year, in each que 
monthly and Quarterly meeting, and a report 
thereof made in writing to this Meeting: and 
it is recommended that in answering the 
query respecting schools, monthly meetings 
furnish their respective Quarters with par- 
ticular accounts of the situation and circum- 
stance of the several schools within their 
limits, and that the Quarterly meetings convey 
to tli is Meeting a summary statement thereof. 

First Query. What changes have been made 
in the times or places of holding Friends' 
meetings; and what new meetings have been 
settled? (183(3.) 

Second Query. Are there schools established 
for the education of our youth, under the care 
o^i teachers in membership with us, and super- 
intended by committees appointed either in 
the monthly or preparative meetings? 

Third Query. Are the queries addressed to 
the Quarterly, monthly and preparative meet- 
ings, read and answered therein as directed? 


when to be It is also concluded, that of the following 

ami nr fk ff» ( I 

four queries, formed for the use of the meet- 
ings of ministers and elders, the first three he 
read and distinctly answered in writing three 
times in a year, by each preparative meeting 
of that kind, to its respective Quarterly meet- 
ing : and that all the said four queries shall be 
in like manner read and answered, by the pre- 
parative to their Quarterly meetings next pre- 
ceding the Yearlv Meeting of ministers and 
elders ; that the Quarterly meetings may be 
enabled "to transmit a clear and distinct state- 
ment of those answers to that Meeting. 

First Query. Are ministers* and elders care- 
ful to attend meetings for Divine worship, 
bringing their families with them ? Do they 
diligently attend meetings for discipline, en- 
couraging such of their families to this duty as 
are of proper age, and suitable deportment? 

Second Query. Are ministers sound in word 
and doctrine; careful to minister in the ability 
which God gives ? 

T/iird Query. Are the lives and conversa- 


tion of ministers and elders clean and blame- 
less amongst men ? Are they in unity one 
with another, and with the meeting they 
belong to, harmoniously laboring for Truth's 

Fourth Query. Are they good examples in 
uprightness, temperance and moderation ; and 
careful to train up their families in plainness 
of dress and simplicity of manners, becoming 
our religious profession ? 

And it is earnestly and affectionately recom- iMinisters 
mended, that ministers and elders watch over advised to 
one another for <rood, to help those who are wat u ch ^ eT 

c A < each other 

exercised in the ministry in the right line; for good 
discouraging forward spirits that run into 
words without life and power; advising against 
affectation of tones and gestures, and every 
thing that would hurt their service ; yet 
encouraging the humble careful traveller; 
" speaking a word in season to them that are 
weary." And let all dwell in that which gives 
ability to labour successfully in the church of 
Christ, adorning the doctrine which they de- 
liver to others; being examples of the be- 
lievers, in word, in conversation, in charity, in 
spirit, in faith, and in purity. 


When any member of our religious Society, 
who has not become an offender by violating 
any rule of Discipline, shall offer a resignation 
of their right of membership, it is advised, that 
the monthly meeting, if way opens, appoint a 
committee to visit such person in love, and in- 
quire into the cause of their resignation ; and if 
his or her mind continues unchanged, a minute 
may be made, stating that he or she is released 
at his or her request; of which the party should 
be informed; and such individual is not to be 
considered a member of our society, until 
received again according to our usual order. 


Under a tender concern for the preserva- 
tion of our members in that purity and sim- 
plicity which become our Christian profession, 
this Meeting is engaged solemnly to caution 
them, and especially the younger part of so 
ciety, against any connection with the societies 


uf " Free Masons," the associations calling them- 
selves " Odd Fellows," or any others requiring 
of their members a pledge of secrecy. Many 
of these extract money from their members 
under the plausible pretence of benevolence; 
whilst they frequently draw them away from 
their families and business, into places and 
practices inimical to their best interests. Their 
convivial meetings, their vain, ostentatious pro- 
cessions, and high sounding titles, are corrupt- 
ing in their tendency, and inconsistent w r ith 
our religious profession. Friends are therefore 
earnestly and affectionately advised against 
becoming or continuing members of any such 
associations. Our Divine Master encouraged 
no secret societies. His disciples were to stand 
as a city set on a hill, which could not be hid. 
They were to let their light shine before men, 
that they, seeing their yood works, might glorify 
our Father who is in heaven. Overseers, and 
other concerned Friends are advised to extend 
timely caution and admonition to all cases 
where any of our members have joined such 
societies, or may be in danger of thus being 
led astray by them. (1850.) 

9 6 


institution The education of our youth in piety and 
port of** virtue, and giving them useful learning under 
■ohoois. the tuition of religious prudent persons, hav- 
ing for many years engaged the solid attention 
of this Meeting, and advices thereon having 
been from time to time issued to the several 
subordinate meetings; it is renewedly desired, 
that Quarterly, monthly and preparative meet- 
ings, may be excited to proper exertions for 
the institution and support of schools ; there 
being but little doubt, that as Friends are 
united, and cherish a disposition of liberality 
for the assistance of each other in this im- 
portant work, they will be enabled to make 
such provision for the accommodation and 
residence of a teacher, with a family, as would 
be an encouragement to well qualified persons 
to engage in this arduous employment: for 
Effects of want of which it has been observed, that chil- 
oAneM dren have been committed to the care of 
under the transient persons, of doubtful character, and 

care ot * 

Friends, sometimes of very corrupt minds, by whose 
bad example and influence, they have been be- 
trayed into principles and habits which have 
had an injurious effect on them in more 
advanced life. It is therefore indispensably 
incumbent on us to guard them against this 


danger, and procure such tutors of our own 
religious persuasion, as are not only capable 
of instructing them in useful learning, to fit 
them for the business of this life, but to train 
them in the knowledge of their duty to God and 
one towards another. It is therefore proposed, 

First. That a lot of ground be provided in House for 
each monthly or preparative meeting, sum- 
cient for a garden, orchard, grass for a cow, 
&c. and a suitable house erected thereon. 

Second. That funds be raised by contribu- Funds. 
tion, bequests, &c. in each meeting; the in- 
terest of which to be applied either in aid 
of the tutor's salary, or lessening the expense 
of Friends in straitened circumstances, in the 
education of their children. 

Third. That a committee be appointed in Com- 
each monthly or preparative meeting, to have 
the care of schools and the funds for their sup- 
port, and that no tutor be employed but with 
their consent. 

Although the raising a sufficiency to answer En- 

.1 . t r «. couraeed 

those purposes may in some places appear dim- t0 ra j SP 
cult, yet as improvements of this kind are funds - 
generally gradual, and have often arisen from 
small beginnings into very valuable establish- 
ments, it is desired that Friends may be 
encouraged thereto, and keeping an eye to the 


Divine blessing on their benevolent endeavors^ 
make such essay for carrying into effect these 
recommendations as they may be enabled. 

The importance of training our children 
and youth in a knowledge of our principles 
being widely felt, Preparative and Monthly 
Meetings are authorized to encourage, and as 
way opens, extend a guarded care over the 
First-day Schools within their limits. (1886.) 


We tenderly and earnestly advise and ex- 
hort all parents and heads of families, that 
they endeavor to instruct their children and 
families in the doctrines and precepts of the 
Christian religion, as contained in the scrip- 
tures; and that they excite them to the dili- 
gent reading of those excellent writings, which 
plainly set forth the miraculous conception, 
birth, holy life, wonderful works, blessed ex- 
ample, meritorious death, and glorious resur- 
rection, ascension and mediation of our Lord 
and Saviour Jesus Christ; and to educate 
their children in the belief of those important 
truths, as well as in the belief of the inward 
manifestation and operation of the holy Spirit 
on their own minds, that they may reap the 
• benefit and advantage thereof, for their own 
peace and everlasting happiness; which is 
infinitely preferable to all other considerations. 


Agreel, that there be collections brought in 
from each Quarterly, unto the next Yearly 
Meeting, for a Yearly Meeting stock, to defray 
the charges of the said Meeting, according to 
the several agreements made or hereafter to 
l^e made. (1695.) 

A stock having been generally kept, and by 
experience found useful for the necessary occa- 
sions of the Society, it is agreed, that the 
same be occasionally renewed by a collection 
from each Quarter; and that it be continued 
in the hands of the treasurer appointed by 
this Meeting, and subject to be drawn out by 
its direction, or by the meeting for sufferings, 
as the exigencies of Society may require. 

The sums which may be thought necessary, 
shall be raised by each Quarter, in the propor- 
tions which may be ascertained by this Meet- 
ing from time to time. 

An arrangement of the quotas of the several 
Quarterly meetings, produced by a committee 
appointed for that purpose, was agreed to in 
1847, as follows : 

9* 1U- 



Philadelphia $20 in every $100. 

Abington 14? " " 

Bucks 14? " " 

Concord , 14* , " " 

Cain...., 2 " " 

Western 13? " " 

Southern 2 " " 

Burlington 5 " " 

Haddonfield 6 " M 

Salem 7 " " 

Fishing Creek 1 " " 

(1880.) $100 



public re 

We think it necessary to caution, not only 
the youth but those of riper age, to avoid the 
and other unnecessary frequenting of taverns and other 

places of . 

places of public resort ; that they be not ex- 
posed to noisy company and unprofitable con- 
versation ; or betrayed into the use of strong 
liquors, by which so many have been corrupted 
both in principle and practice, to the ruin of 
themselves and their families. And if any 
are in danger on these accounts, it is desired 
that they may be timely and tenderly treated 
with in order to convince them of their danger. 


Considering the temptations and snares 
which they are exposed to who keep houses 


of public entertainment or beer-houses, the keeping 


corrupting influence of many who resort to 
them, and its effects on the children and 
families so exposed; it is the judgment of this 
Meeting, that our members avoid engaging in 
such employments for a livelihood ; and attend 
to the pointings of pure wisdom for that end. 

That Friends are earnestly entreated, as far Signing 
as their influence extends, to prevent the sale £'1^^ 
of intoxicating liquors as a beverage, and not 
to Bign applications to license inns or taverns piine 
for that purpose, and when any of our mem- 
bers do sign such applications, it shall be con- 
sidered a violation of our Discipline. (1879.) 

a violation 
of Disci- 


It is the sense of this Meeting, that offenders Acknow- 
inclining to make acknowledgment of their tobe?© 18 
offences, do prepare the same in writing; and writin g 
if, on consulting the overseers or other judi- 
cious Friends, the purport appears suitable to 
the occasion, and the situation of the party 
will admit of it, he or she may present it to 
the meeting in person, and stay till it is read; 
when, after time given for a solid pause, they 



should withdraw before that or any other busi- 
ness is proceeded upon. The meeting is then 
to consider the case, and appoint two or more 
Friends to inform the party of the result. 

Notice In all cases where a meeting apprehends 

issuing a itself under a necessity to disown a member, 
testimony. ] e j. BUC ^ memD er, if the occasion and his or her 
situation will admit of it, be previously in- 
formed thereof: and when the judgment of the 
meeting is issued, let a copy thereof be de- 
livered to the party testified against, with noti- 
fication of his or her right of appeal. 


Truth is I T being evident, that where the manifesta- 
•guidance. tions and restraints of the Spirit of truth are 
duly prized and regarded, it leads out of a 
bondage to the spirit of this world, and pre- 
serves the minds of its followers from many 
fettering and disqualifying entanglements; and 
(nordinate contrariwise, that an inordinate love and pur- 
n^hesin- suit of worldly riches, often betrays those who 
voives in are captivated by them, into many difficulties 

difficulty. l J i • /» i 

and dangers, to the great obstruction ot the 
work of Truth in the heart : we affectionately 

TRADE. 109 

desire that the counsel and gracious promise 
of our blessed Redeemer to his followers, may 
be borne in remembrance by us, "Seek ye first 
the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and 
all these things shall be added unto you." 

This Meeting being earnestly concerned that Engage- 
the service of our religious Society may not be be within 
obstructed, or its reputation dishonored, by any 0U J meani 
imprudence of its members in their worldly strictly 
engagements, recommends to all, that they be 
careful not to venture upon such business as 
they do not well understand; nor to launch 
out in trade beyond their abilities, and at the 
risk of others; especially on the credit which 
may be derived from a profession of the Truth ; 
but that they bound their engagements by 
their means; and when they enter into con- 
tracts, or give their words, that they endeavor 
on all occasions strictlv to fulfil them. 

We particularly exhort that none engage in Hazardous 
such concerns as depend on the often decep- ™^ll t0 
tive probabilities of hazardous enterprises; but beavoid- 

i i i • i i t . ed, and a 

rather content themselves with such a plain moderate 
and moderate way of living as is consistent uvin°kept 
with the self-denying principle we make pro- t0 - 
iession of; whereby many disappointments and 
grievous perplexities may be avoided, and that 
tranquillity of mind obtained which is insepara- 
ble from the right enjoyment even of temporal 
things. And it is advised, that where any 



among us err, or are in danger of erring in 
these respects, they be faithfully and timely 

inspect It is recommended that Friends frequently 

*n.Twhen inspect the state of their affairs, and keep their 
needful, accounts so clear and accurate, that they may, 
at any time, easily know whether they live 
within the bounds of their circumstances, or 
not ; and, in case of death, that these may not 
be perplexing to survivors. And whenever 
any find that they have no more property left 
than is sufficient to discharge their just debts, 
it is advised, that they immediately consult 
with some judicious Friends, and, without loss 
of time, make their circumstances known to 
their creditors; carefully avoiding the pay- 
And avoid ment of one in preference to another, that so 
none may be injured, nor any reproach be 
incurred by mismanagement. 



Ukely to 
fail to be 

And where overseers, or other concerned 
Friends, have reason to fear that any person 
or family, by living above their means, or 
from a want of punctuality in fulfilling their 
contracts, or any other cause, are declining in 
their circumstances, and likely to fail, it is 
recommended that such be seasonably treated 
with, and (if it appear requisite) advised to 
call their creditors together without delay. 
And if, notwithstanding this advice, such per- 
sons still persist and run into embarrassment. 


to the loss of others and to their own disrepu- 
tation, the preparative or monthly meeting to 
whieh they belong, ought to be timely informed 
thereof, and proceed to deal with them accord- 
ing to our rules; when, if this labor also 
prove ineffectual, a testimony of denial may 
be issued against them. 

It is advised that where such failures occur, Assignees 
and the cases are under the care of monthly °* beln- 08 
meetings, that the Friends appointed to visit ( i uired of - 
the parties inquire of their assignees or trus- 
tees, how their deficiencies have happened, and 
report accordingly. And it is the judgment of 
this Meeting, that neither monthly nor other 
meetings should receive subscriptions, dona- when sub 
tions or bequests from persons so circum- ^In^not 
stanced, until they have paid off their deficien- to be re- 


cies, or are voluntarily acquitted thereof by 
their creditors : for it should be remembered 
that though, in such cases, the defaulter may 
have been legally discharged, the property he When of 
or she may afterwards acquire is not properly pay fa 
his or her own, till the former debts have been bt8, 
fairly paid, to the satisfaction of the creditors. 
Wherefore we further advise, that if any such 
person or persons, on being suitably reminded 
of their duty in this respect, shall refuse to 
comply therewith, inquiry be made into the 
reason, and if it be not such as shall satisfy 
the monthly meetings of which they are mem- Or bo di« 
bers, and they cannot be prevailed with, — the ° 

112 TRADE. 

said meetings, after a proper time of labor and 
forbearance, may issue a testimony of denial 
against them. 

ah cases In order regularly to bring all cases of failure 

to here- 6 before preparative and monthly meetings for 

Parted. their care, and also, a provision more effectually 

to insure an impartial distribution of the effects 

of insolvents, the following rules were adopted. 


Overseers When any member of our religious Society 
qui™ into m trade or business becomes unable to dis- 
eases of charge his or her debts, the overseers should 

failure ° / ... 

and lay take an early opportunity to ascertain the cir- 
before cumstances of the case, and spread the same 
meetings, before the preparative meeting, in order that 
it may be regularly forwarded to the monthly 
meeting : and if it shall appear that such fail- 
ure has arisen from a want of due attention to 
the advices of this Meeting on the subject of 
trade and business, and has brought reproach 
on our religious profession, the monthly meet- 
ing shall be at liberty to issue a testimony of 
disownment. (1816.) 

Creditors And it is also the judgment of this Meeting, 
suited C and &at when any of our members are about to 
j iave assign their property, their creditors should be 

liberty to ° • i i ■ i-i 

appoint consulted, if practicable, and have the liberty 

•ssignee:. ^ appointing assignees to take charge of the 

effects, which should be assigned without any 

TRADE. 113 

condition or reservation; and if the party do 
not so proceed, the case shall be treated as is 
directed in the preceding paragraph. (1816.) 

Advised, that when Friends accept the office Duties of 
of trustee or assignee, they be active in collect- assi s neea 
ing the effects of the estate, and punctual and 
speedy in making distribution. 

Advised, that Friends everywhere carefully Govem- 
avoid being anyway concerned in defrauding J" ^ °e- 
the government of its duties; that so our frauded - 
ancient testimony in this respect may be in- 
violably maintained. 

We warn our members against a pernicious Mere 
practice amongst the trading part of the com- ^ a e p d ^ di8 
m unity, which has often issued in the ruin of <^ u ™ged 
those concerning therein, viz. : That of raising 
and circulating a kind of paper credit, with 
endorsements, to give it an appearance of 
value, without an intrinsic reality; a practice 
which, as it appears to be inconsistent with 
the Truth we profess, we declare our disappro- 
bation of, and entreat every member of our 
Society to avoid and discourage. 

We also caution all in membership with us John se- 
to avoid entering into joint securities with caudoned 
others, under the specious plea of rendering against. 
acts of kindness; many, by so doing, having 
been suddenly ruined, and their families re- 



duced to deplorable circumstances. "Be not 
thou," said the wise man, "one of them that 
strike hands ; or of them that are sureties for 
debts. If thou hast nothing to pay, why 
should he take away thy bed from under 
thee r 

Divine We affectionately desire that Friends may 

be waited wait for Divine counsel in all their engage-: 
for - ments, and not suffer their minds to be hurried 

away by an inordinate desire of worldly riches ; 
remembering the observation of the apostle in 
his day, and so often sorrowfully verified in 
ours, that " They who will be rich, fall into 
temptation and a snare;" and, erring from the 
faith, " pierce themselves through with many 
sorrows." Even when riches to any extraordi- 
nary degree have been amassed by the success- 
ful industry of parents, how often have they 
proved like wings to their children, carrying 
them beyond the limitations of Truth, into 
liberties repugnant to our religious testimonies, 
and sometimes into enterprises which have 
terminated in irreparable damage to their 
temporal affairs, if not an entire forge tfulness 
of the great work of the soul's salvation. 

of great 


Fkiends are exhorted faithfully to adhere Exhort* 
to our ancient testimony against wars and f a uhfui 
fightings, and in no way to unite with any in maiute - 

007 J \ nance of 

warlike measures, either offensive or defensive; ourtesti 
that by the inoffensiveness of our conduct, we 
may convincingly demonstrate ourselves to be 
real subjects of the Messiah's peaceful reign, 
and be instrumental in the promotion thereof, 
towards its desired completion, when, accord- 
ing to ancient prophecy, " the earth shall be 
full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the 
waters cover the sea ;" and its inhabitants 
" shall learn war no more." 

When goods have been distrained from any Overplus 
Friends on account of their refusal to pay fines tracts not 
for non-performance of military services, and t0 be !lc 

m c ii- 1 /» cepted un 

tne officers, after deducting the tines and costs, less in the 
propose to return the remainder, — it is the T^ 3m 
sense of this Meeting, that Friends should 
maintain their testimony by suffering, rather 
than accept such overplus ; unless the same or 
a part of it is returned without a change of the 

It is declared to be the sense of this Meet- Furnish- 
ing that furnishing wagons, or other means for ^f gong a 


116 WAR. 


military conveying military stores, is a military service-, 
and that the care of elders, overseers and faith- 
ful Friends, should be extended in true love 
and Christian tenderness, to such as deviate 
herein, in order to convince them of their error 

Tax for It is the sense of this Meeting, that a tax, 

levied for the purchasing of drums, colors, or 
for other warlike uses, cannot be paid con- 
sistently with our Christian testimony. 

Viewing This Meeting fervently recommends to the 

^eratious deep attention of all our members, that they 
or encou- oe religiously guarded against approving or 
unstable showing the least connivance at war, either by 
party ad- attending at or viewing of military operations; 

Vi ** i t or m an y w * se encoura oi n g * ne unstable deceit- 
ful spirit of party, by joining with political 
devices or associations, however speciously dis- 
guised under the ensnaring subtleties commonly 
attendant thereon : but that they sincerely 
labor to experience a settlement on the alone 
sure foundation of pure unchangeable Truth ; 
whereby, through the prevalence of unfeigned 
Christian love and good will to men, we may 
convincingly demonstrate that the kingdom we 
seek is not of this world. A kingdom and 
government whose subjects are free indeed! 
redeemed from those captivating lusts from 
whence come wars and fightings. 

A living concern for the advancement of our 


WAR. 117 

Testimony to the peaceable kingdom of Christ, Business 

. , . i n . .onnected 

continuing to spread in many minds, a iervent with war 
desire hath prevailed amongst us, that the mem- *^j e(1 
bers of our religious Society would carefully 
avoid engaging in any trade or business pro- 
motive of war, — sharing or partaking of the 
spoils of war by purchasing or selling prize 
goods, importing or shipping goods in armed 
vessels, paying taxes for the express purpose 
of war, grinding of grain, feeding of cattle, 01 
selling their property for the use of the army : 
that through a close attention to the monitions 
of Divine grace, and guarding against the sup- 
pression of it either in themselves or others, 
they may be preserved in a conduct consistent 
with our holy profession, from wounding the 
minds or increasing the sufferings of each 
other; not at all doubting, that He to whom 
appertains the kingdom and the power, who is 
wonderful in working, will continue to carry 
on and perfect his blessed cause of peace in 
the earth. A solid attention to this concern Payment 
is recommended to Quarterly, monthly and taxe"^ 01 
preparative meetings, and to our brethren in lieu of per 
general; it being the judgment of this Meet- vice, 
ing, that if any of our members do either ™.'is 
openly or by connivance pay any fine, penalty tr:ldin 
or tax in lieu of personal service for carrying cates 
on war, or allow their children, apprentices or |^!j[ ' 
servants to act therein, or are concerned in P ose of 

war, cause 

arming or equipping vessels with guns, or deal of dealing 
in public certificates issued as a compensation 
10* H 

g in 

118 WILLS. 

for expenses accrued or services performed in 
war, that they be tenderly dealt with, and if 
they cannot be brought to an acknowledgment 
of their error, monthly meetings are at liberty 
to testify against them. 

Military It is the sense and judgment of this Meet- 
not to be m &> that it is inconsistent with our religious 
paid, how testimony and principle, for any Friend to pay 

ever ap- • / * * * * v j 

plied a fine or tax, levied on them on account of 
their refusal to serve in the militia, although 
such fine or imposition may be applied towards 
defraying the expenses of civil government: 
and where deviations in this respect occur, 
tender dealing and advice should be extended 
to the party in order to their convincement 
and restoration; and if this proves ineffectual, 
monthly meetings should proceed to testify 
against them. 


To be Knowing how quickly many are removed 

timeot Dv death, it is weightily recommended, that 

health. care De taken by each monthly meeting, that 

Friends who have estates to dispose of, be 

advised to make their wills in time of health, 

WILLS. 110 

and strength of judgment; and therein to 
direct their substance as in justice and wisdom 
may be to their satisfaction and peace; laying 
aside all resentment, though occasion may have J^® * n 
been given, lest it should go with them to the ment » 
grave; remembering we all stand in need of 
mercy and forgiveness. Making such wills in 
due time can shorten no one's days, but the 
omission or delay thereof to a time of sickness, 
when the mind should not be diverted from a 
solemn consideration of the approaching awful 
period of life, has often proved very injurious 
to many, and been the occasion of creating 
animosities in families, which the seasonable 
performance of this necessary duty might have 
effectually prevented. 

Friends are earnestly recommended to em- To be 
ploy persons skilful in the law, and of good p^ns y 
repute, to make their wills : as great incon- <i uali fi eJ 

. ■. -. . , . therefor 

venience and loss, and sometimes the ruin of 
families, have happened through the unskilful- 
ness of some who have taken upon them to 
write wills, being unqualified to act in a matter 
of such importance. And all Friends who 
may become executors or administrators, are 
advised to make a full, clear and perfect in- Advice to 
ventory of the estate and effects of the de- ^(Taii- 19 
ceased, early after the interment ; as many ™ inistra * 
difiiculties and disputes have arisen, and some- 
times injustice been done, for want of it, or by 
deferring it too long. 


Account It appears by the records, that our first 
blishment Yearly Meeting was held at Burlington in New 
and the j ersey tn e thirty-first day of the Sixth Month, 

times of ^ ^ / 

holding it 1681, 0. S., for the provinces of Pennsylvania 
present ana " New Jersey; that in 1685, it was agreed 
nS] *° ^ e ne ^ alternately at Burlington and Phila- 
delphia; that in 1755, the time of holding it 
was changed to the Ninth Month ; that in 
1760, it was concluded to be held at the same 
time at Philadelphia only; that in 1798, the 
time of holding it was altered to the third 
Second-day in the Fourth Month; that in 
1827, the time of holding it was changed to 
the second Second-day of the Fourth Month ; 
and in 1838, it was agreed to be held on the 
Second-day following the second First-day in 
the Fifth month, as it now is; the Yearly 

Meeting of ministers and elders to be on the 



seventh day of the week preceding; and both 
to begin at the tenth hour. 

It is agreed, that such Friends as may committee 
be appointed to prepare epistles shall meet ™ s epis " 
together before they proceed on the service, 
and also examine the several essays previous 
to their being laid before this Meeting. 

Agreed, that all letters or papers directed On official 
to the Yearly Meeting, except from such meet- sp0 nd 
ings as regularly correspond therewith, be first ence- 
perused by a few Friends to be appointed; who 
are to consider and report, whether the same 
be proper to be read in this meeting or not. 

Agreed, that when extracts from the minutes Extract*, 
of this Meeting are ordered to be sent to the 
Quarterly meetings, a full copy shall be sent 
by each of those meetings to their respective 
monthly meetings, and by the monthly to each 
of their preparative meetings, in order that 
each meeting may have a copy thereof, to have 
recourse to as occasions may require. 

The certificates of such Friends, members Certifi- 
of other Yearly Meetings, who from a religious 
concern are drawn to attend this, are to be 
read herein. 



ADVICES 96-98 



See Testimonies of Denial 107 


Mode prescribed for settling differences ib. 

Either party not complying, to be complained of to 

the monthly meeting 9 

Erroneous or unjust award, cause of rehearing 10 

Arbitrators may consult counsel in the law ib. 

Particular cases exceptions to the positive rules 11 

Permission for a trial at law ib. 

Overseers in certain cases, to advise a speedy settle- 
ment without reference 12 

Preparative meeting concurring therewith, the com- 

laint to be dismissed ib 


Committee for the preservation of order and solemnity 

at burials ib. 

Caution when attending the burials of those not in 

communion with us ib. 


1 24 INDEX . 

Invitations to funerals, where a hireling minister is 
expected to officiate, not to be published in our 
meetings 14 

Formal or customary meetings at interments, advised 

against ib 

Committee to have care of our burial grounds, and 

granting permits to those not members ib'. 

Marks allowed of 15 

Directions to monthly meetings ib. 

Extravagant expenses advised against ib. 

Records of births and deaths to be kept 15, 16 


Oversight of writings, vested in the meeting for suf- 
ferings, on the author's application ib 

Persons publishing that which tends to excite disunity 

and discord among us, to be disowned ib. 

Printers and booksellers not to sell or lend pernicious 

books 17,18 


For travelling Friends, to be returned, and all certifi- 
cates to be recorded ib. 

Mode of signing 19 

Of removals ib. 

Residence gained on receipt of the certificate 20 

Persons falling into necessitous circumstances, or who 
are reduced through unavoidable losses, to be 

assisted ib. 

Certificates to be sent after such as have removed 

without applying for them 21 

If their conduct has been exceptionable, they are to 

be treated with, and the manner pointed out ib. 

INDEX. 12T) 


Parents, guardians, &c. to apply for certificates for 

minors 21 

Persons coining amongst Friends without certificates, 
and being of disorderly conduct, to be treated 

with 22 

Recommendation to visit such who bring certifi- 
cates ib. 

See Ministers and Elders 68, 69 

Concerning marriage 49, 60 

Correspondents 22 


Caution against resentment. See Wills 119 


No office or station to be accepted, the duties or exer- 
cise whereof may violate our testimonies 24 

Election to offices or stations ib. 

Caution against defrauding. See Trade 113 


See Discipline 40 


Immorality to be testified against 26 

Blasphemy, and denial of the divinity of Christ — 

testified against ib. 

Strict justice to be observed in all our dealings 27 


Order prescribed for receiving persons into mem- 
bership ib. 

Nation or color, no obstruction if the applicant is 

united to us in principle and practice 29 

126 INDEX. 


Such as have been disowned received as other appli- 
cants 29 

DANCING— See Diversions 44 


Reasons for not observing fasts, &c 31' 


Gospel order held up to view ib. 

Persons guilty of detraction to be dealt with ib. 

Reporters and tale bearers also to be dealt with 33 


Connection and subordination of meetings 34 

To make or alter any rule of discipline, men and 

women Friends to unite 34 

Meetings set up by consent of superior meetings ib. 

A meeting for worship consisting of members of two 

or more monthly meetings ih. 

Minutes of the business of meetings to be kept in 

books provided for the purpose 36 

Cases too weighty or difficult for monthly meetings, 

should claim the care of Quarterly meetings ib. 

Copies of minutes or records may be granted to meet- 
ings, or individuals 36 

Representatives to be appointed, to attend Quarterly 

and Yearly meetings ib. 

Mode of treating with such as reside at a distance.... 87 

Offenders not to sit in meetings for discipline . 38 

Explicit accounts of sufferings to be forwarded by 

Quarterly meetings to meeting for sufferings ib. 

Official record in men's meeting 38 

Rights of children whose parents have been married 

contrary to our order 39 

INDEX. 12 


Sorcery to be testified against 39 

Clerks to be seasonably changed 40 

Use and design of preparative meetings ib. 


ELDERS to be chosen 65 

Mode of their appointment 66 

Appointment of a committee once in four years to 

consider of changing them ib. 



Different kinds enumerated as cause of disowninent... ib. 

LAW 45 

Refusal to pay debts cause of disownment ib. 

Debtors' effects to be surrendered or they disowned... 45 

Christian charity to be exercised ib. 

Ability to pay deficiencies if not complied with, cause 

of disownment ib. 

See also Trade Ill 

Suing at law except with certain restrictions dis- 
allowed of and to be testified against 46 


See Donations 43 

Meeting for Sufferings 49 

Strictly applied 96 


See Civil Government 28 


128 INDEX 



See Gaming 44 


Divine counsel to be waited for ib. 

Principles on which our good order is founded 47, 48 

Mode of proceeding in marriage 48, 49 

Consent of parents, and certificates of clearness, to be 

produced 49 

Rights of children of widows to be secured ib. 

Form of marriage certificate 50, 51 

Marriages of first cousins, and all others so near akin, 

not to be permitted 52-64 

Care and caution to prevent mixed marriages 53 

Members to be admonished /&. 

Mixed marriages, and those before a priest or hireling 

minister, to be treated as offences 53 54 

Members who marry those not in membership, out of 
the order of Friends, may be retained without a 
written acknowledgment, where no immoral con- 
duct or breach of our testimonies, has occurred.. 54 

See Advices following Queries 95 

One party not in membership 54 


Timely care advised for inspection of titles of real 
estate held by meetings, that' the trusts may be 

seasonably renewed ib. 

Regular account to be preserved, when, and with 
whom the papers, minutes, &c. of meetings are 
deposited ib. 


its services and duties 58-60 




Unbecoming behavior requiring admonition ib. 

Exhortation to diligence in attending meetings ib. 

Such who wilfully neglect them and arc not reclaimed 

by the labor of Friends, to be disowned 62 

Dr )wsiness in meeting is offensive ib. 


See Discipline, &c 34-40 


See Meeting for sufferings 59 


Advice to ministers ib. 

Misbehavior of ministers requires admonition ib. 

Public opposition to approved ministers disallowed.... 65 

Appointment of Elders 65, 66 

Recommendation of ministers 67, 68 

No minister to appoint meetings out of the limits of 
their Quarterly meeting, but with the consent of 

the monthly meeting 68 

Elders, appearing in the ministry ib. 

Ministers concerned to travel are to spread their con- 
cerns before the monthly meetings ib. 

General religious visits are to have the concurrence of 

the Quarterly meeting 69 

Monthly meeting certificate, sufficient to attend one 

of the Yearly Meetings on this continent ib. 

Also to visit the meetings of one or two Quarterly 
meetings adjacent to our limits, belonging to 

New York or Maryland ib. 

Meetings to render assistance to ministers perform- 
ing religious visits, if requisite 69, 70 

130 INDEX. 


Preparative meetings of ministers and elders 70 

Quarterly meetings, . of ditto 71 

Yearly Meeting, of ditto ib. 

Concerns of ministers for crossing the seas, to be 

considered in the Yearly Meeting ib. 

Meetings of ministers and elders are not to interfere 

with meetings for discipline 72 

Mode of treating with a minister or elder who may 

lose his or her service ib. 


Idle company and evil practices to be avoided ib. 

Giving or receiving strong liquors at vendues 74 

Ruinous effects of distilled spirituous liquors ib. 

Moderation at marriages, &c. recommended 75 

Distillation of spirits, or selling such liquors, causes 

of disownment ib. 

Using spirituous liquors, as a drink, advised against.. 76 

See Fourth Query 94 


See Marks 15 


See Diversions 44 


Advice, assistance and school learning to be given to 

this people 78 

Hiring slaves opposed to our testimony ib. 

Caution to executors and administrators ib. 

Advice t > such as have held slaves 78, 79 

INDEX. 131 


The importation, selling, purchasing or giving away 

slaves, testified against 79 


Members that are parties to, or connive at their clerks 

administering oaths, to be treated with ib. 

Violation of this testimony to be testified against 82 

Friends advised against electing or promoting their 
brethren to offices in government whereby this 
testimony may be violated ib. 

Recommendation respecting witnesses to instruments 

of writing ib. 

'S^ Civil Government 23, 24 


Their service and duty ib. 

Appointment of a committee once in three years to 

consider of changing them 84 


Youth exhorted to avoid ensnaring corruptions ib. 

Such who go into extravagant fashions or fall into 

evil company and excesses, to be treated with 86 

Parents indulging their children in extravagance 87 

Children to be brought up to industry ib. 

Children of the poor to be instructed in useful em- 
ployments, on moderate terms *& 


Caution to tradesmen and others ib. 

Maintenance of this testimony in our speech, without 

respect to persons 89 


132 INDEX. 


See Third Query 94 

POOR 90 

Advice and assistance to be afforded them ib. 

Funds to be raised for this purpose ib. 

Situation of our fellow-members not to be exposed 91 

See Fifth Query 94 


Gospel ministry, free ib. 

Violation of this testimony to be testified against ib. 

Advice on attending the worship of those not in com- 
munion with us 92 


For meetings for discipline 93-97 

For meetings of ministers and elders 98, 99 



See Gaming and Diversions 44 


See Births and Deaths 10 

Certificates 18 

Discipline 35 

Copies to be given ib. 

Marriage certificates 50 

Meeting houses 57 

Yearly Meeting 1 20 

Official record in men's meeting 38 


See Families 43 

INDEX. 133 


Ministers and elders 68-72 


See Certificates 20-22 

Discipline treating with such as are at a distance 37 



See Discipline 3G 




See Discipline 39 

Marriages, children of widows 49 

SCHOOLS 102, 103 

See Queries 97 

First day Schools 104 



See Discipline 39 


Dram drinking. See Moderation and Temperance... 73 

Taverns 106 

I 3 1 INDEX. 


STOCK : 105 

Arrangement of the quotas 106 


Unnecessary frequenting them to be avoided ib. 

Caution against keeping them ib. 

Friends to exert their influence against the unneces- 
sary increase of them 107 


&*War 115-116 

TOBACCO (See Advices) 96 


Acknowledgments, to be in writing ib. 

Members under dealing to be notified that a testimony 

is to be issued 108 

Information of the right of appeal ib. 

TRADE 108 

Engagements to be within our means and strictly ful- 
filled 109 

Hazardous enterprises to be avoided ib. 

Accounts to be accurately kept, and if a failure be 

apprehended, creditors are to be informed 110 

Such as run into embarrassment to be treated with 

by preparative and monthly meetings ib. 

Assignees or trustees to be inquired of. Ill 

Debtors acquiring sufficiency, to discharge their debts, 

and refusing so to do, are to be disowned ib. 

See the same case under Law 45 

All cases of failure to be attended to by monthly 

meetings 112 

INDEX. 135 


Creditors to be consulted, when assignments are 

about to be made, and have liberty to appoint 

assignees 112 

Assignments to be made without condition or reserva- 
tion ib. 

Defrauding the government cautioned against 113 

Mere paper credit inconsistent with truth ib. 

Joint securities cautioned against ib. 

See Queries 6th and 7th 94, 95 


See Gaming 42 

WAR 115 

Exhortation to maintain this testimony ib. 

Overplus of distraints not to be received unless in the 

same goods ib. 

Furnishing wagons, a military service ib. 

Taxes for warlike purposes not to be paid 116 

Viewing military operations or joining with party 

spirit advised against ib. 

Business connected with war to be avoided 117 

Payment of fines, arming vessels, and dealing in cer- 
tificates issued for the purpose of war, to be tes- 
tified against ib. 

Fine or tax levied on account of militia laws, not to 

be paid, however applied 118 

See Sixth Query 94 

WILLS 118 

See Advices after Queries 96 

136 INDEX. 



Account of its first establishment to the present time ib. 

Committee on epistles 121 

Letters or papers to be examined ib. 

Extracts, to go to the subordinate meetings ib, 

Certificates of Friends attending the meeting .. ib. 



3 1715 DDSflb 1S7A